Last horned serpent, a large triangle above it (Mike Chervinko proposes it is a wing), and the rattle tail. C-14 sample no. 2 by Dr. Karen Steelman.

pXRF analysis 2 (rattle tail): Iron = 0.179% +/- 0.017 and Aluminum = 99.819%.

pXRF analysis 3 (wing?): Iron = 0.397 +/- 0.016 and Aluminum = 99.6 +/- 0.008

pXRF analysis 4 (black mark on left side of wing): Iron = 0.054% +/- 0.009 and Aluminum = 9.943% +/- 0.001

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Unifacial knife and scraper tool

Length = 68.85 mm,

Width = 31.48 mm,

Thickness = 5.71 mm,

Weight = 15.71 grams

dStretch image (filter LDS) of the red and black figure painted on the ceiling. Scale is 20 cm. My perspective on this pictograph changed with closer examination. It has a forked tail (not two legs) and greatly resembles a barn swallow. The amorphous, halo-like black pictograph is hard to interpret - it could be an animal's head looking left with an open mouth.

pXRF analysis 26 (upper body of red pictograph): Antimony = 57.93 ppm +/- 13.46, Tin = 37.67 ppm +/- 12.1, Zirconium = 33.45 ppm +/- 8.31, Nickel = 42.04 ppm +/- 24.48, Iron = 5526.28 ppm +/- 137.58, Barium = 402.65 ppm +/- 48.37, and Strontium = 27.46 ppm +/- 3.46. 

pXRF analysis 31 (upper body of red pictograph):Iron = 0.963% +/- 0.029 and Aluminum = 99.03% +/- 0.019.

pXRF analysis 27 (lower body of red pictograph): Antimony = 62.19 ppm +/- 13.22, Tin = 40.7 ppm +/- 11.89, Cadmium = 29.09 ppm +/- 9.77, Zirconium = 29.2 ppm +/- 8.08, Iron = 7334.08 ppm +/- 154, Barium = 498.45 ppm +/- 47.91, and Strontium = 34.51 ppm +/- 3.58. 

pXRF analysis 30 (lower body of red pictograph): Iron = 0.849% +/- 0.026 and Aluminum = 99.149% +/- 0.017.

pXRF analysis 28 (faint halo of black pictograph): Antimony = 38.99 ppm +/- 12.41, Tin = 26.2 ppm +/- 11.17, Zirconium = 15.65 ppm +/- 7.54, Iron = 229.28 ppm +/- 35.2, Barium = 306.33 ppm +/- 44.66, and Strontium = 27.72 ppm +/- 3.25.

pXRF analysis 29 (faint halo of black pigment): Iron = 0.041% +/- 0.006 and Aluminum = 99.956% +/- 0.001

pXRF analysis 39 (nearby background): Antimony = 54.05 ppm +/- 13.21, Tin = 27.66 ppm +/- 11.91, Cadmium = 11.91 ppm +/- 16.62, Zirconium = 27.23 ppm +/- 8.15, Iron = 201.47 ppm +/- 36.15, Barium = 411.52 ppm +/- 47.66, and Strontium = 45.93 ppm +/- 3.9.

pXRF analysis 38 (nearby background): Iron = 0.027% +/- 0.006 and Aluminum = 99.969% +/- 0.001

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DStretch of the first horned serpent, black pigment bird, and second horned serpent attacking the bird. C-14 sample no. 4 by Dr. Karen Steelman.

pXRF analysis 7 (body of large, mother bird): Antimony 51.88 ppm +/- 13.42, Tin = 46.14 ppm +/- 12.2, Zirconium = 34.26 ppm +/- 8.29, Lead = 22.63 ppm +/- 7.41, Iron = 298.05 ppm +/- 41.05, Manganese = 70.8 ppm +/- 39.88, Barium = 371.81 ppm +/- 48.27, and Strontium = 10.53 ppm +/- 2.94. 

pXRF analysis 6 (body of large, mother bird): Lead = 0.002% +/- 0.001, Iron = 0.036% +/- 0.006, Aluminum = 99.96% +/- 0.001

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Rice Side Notched Point ->

Length = 62.11 mm,

Width = 28.88 mm,

Thickness = 9.90 mm

Weight = 17.48 grams

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Dr. Michael Fuller points to the red pictograph of six horned serpents "enechelon." Photograph by Mike Chervinko on 15 January 2023 while Dr. Fuller was doing pXRF chemical analysis and Dr. Karen Steelman collected C-14 samples. This pictograph measures 96.5 cm (38 inches) in length. A drawing of the pictograph as a single serpent without the rattle tail was published by Diaz-Granados (1993:Figure 21.2e) in her dissertation; the same drawing was used in two subsequent publications (Diaz-Granados and Duncan 2000:Figure 5.39 and Duncan and Diaz-Granados 2004:Figure 12.30). In all cases the drawing is captioned as "horned serpent"; it was also termed "a metaphor for a comet or shooting star" (Diaz-Granados and Duncan 2000:202). The horned serpent identification is absolutely correct. I see six serpent heads instead of just one. The comet or shooting star metaphor actually works for several beautiful red pictographs on the ceiling of the shelter, but not this panel.  Iconography of the Horned Serpent is a powerful metaphor in the ancient art of both MesoAmerican and the American Southwest (Coltman 2015).

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Piece of pinkish red sandstone found approximately 20 meters downslope from the shelter. pXRF sample 32: Iron = 0.398% +/- 0.016 and Aluminum = 99.592% +/- 0.009. 

View of the Groeper Shelter site. A meter scale stands vertical against a breakdown block in the center of the photograph. The 6 horned serpents are painted on the wall directly behind the meter scale. A large petroglyph of nested circles is situated on the breakdown block next to the meter scale. 


This large rockshelter was formed  in the St. Peters Sandstone. A small natural pool of water is formed outside the overhang after rainstorms. A cluster of red ochre and black charcoal pictographs are painted on the walls and ceiling; they are found only in the southeast arm of the shelter. The site is located on private property, not open to the public, and very difficult to reach because of its isolated location. 

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<- Lightning whelk (Sinistrofulgur sinistrum) columella that has been cut and snapped. The shell originated in the Gulf of Mexico and probably was obtained by trading/raiding at Cahokia. It was discovered approximately 5 to 10 feet behind the boulder with the dot and circle petroglyph at the Groeper Shelter. Length = 48.6 mm, width = 17.15 mm, thickness = 12.69 mm and weight = 16.15 grams. Columella like this were found at Tick Creek Cave (23PH145), the Fierce Owl Site (23SL18), the Big Mound in downtown St. Louis, and the Herrel Site (23JE55)  in Jefferson County (Trubitt 1996:Table 3). Many examples are known from Cahokia and the American Bottom area of Illinois.

1    2    3    4    5    6    Rattle     

Problematic red pigment pictograph and a black pigment beneath it. Hard to interpret even with DStretch (filter YRE).  

pXRF analysis 23 (center of red diamond): Antimony 60.31 ppm +/- 13.93, Tin = 36.12 ppm +/- 12.5, Zirconium = 30 ppm +/- 8.5, Iron = 3332.14 ppm +/- 111.67, Barium = 390.33 ppm +/- 49.94, and Strontium = 13.37 ppm +/- 3.13. 

pXRF analysis 16 (center of red diamond):Iron = 0.629% +/- 0.021, and Aluminum = 99.369% +/- 0.012.

pXRF analysis 22 (red stripped design, lower left): Antimony = 41.82 ppm +/- 12.41, Tin = 24.81 ppm +/- 11.15, Zirconium = 26.3 ppm +/- 7.61, Gold = 13.31 ppm +/- 7.94, Iron = 1113.17 ppm +/- 61.71, Barium = 358.92 ppm +/- 44.96, and Strontium = 7.5 ppm +/- 2.64. 

pXRF analysis 17 (red stripped design, lower left): Iron = 0.103% +/- 0.009 and Aluminum = 99.893% +/- 0.003

pXRF analysis 21 (black strip below red pictographs): Antimony = 48.52 ppm +/- 12.86, Tin = 37.01 ppm +/- 11.63, Cadmium = 14.96 ppm +/- 9.41, Zirconium = 27.57 ppm +/- 7.85, Iron = 212.99 ppm +/- 35.62, Barium = 366.38 ppm +/- 46.29, and Strontium = 7.27 +/- 2.71.

pXRF analysis 18 (Black strip below red pictographs): Iron = 0.037% +/- 0.007 and Aluminum = 99.959% +/- 0.001

pXRF analysis 20 (unpainted Background below pictographs): Antimony 45.13 ppm +/- 11.43, Tin = 27.32 ppm +/- 10.26, Zirconium = 12.62 ppm +/- 6.82, Iron = 175.07 ppm +/- 30.22, Barium = 338.16 ppm +/- 41.19, and Strontium = 8.59 ppm +/- 2.46

pXRF analysis 19 (unpainted Background below pictographs): Iron = 0.028% +/- 0.006 and Aluminum = 99.97% +/- 0.001


Relationship of the larger serpent and six horned serpents in Groeper Shelter (23WN1177). My first impression is that it is like a proud gahi'ge (Osage, "the Great One; the Chief" based upon LaFlesche (1932:45)) greeting the dodon hintonga watsegthin (Osage, "Returning victorious war party" based upon LaFlesche (1932:37)).

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A second, larger serpent in faint red pigment slithers with open mouth towards the 6 horned serpents with their prey. Scale is 20 cm. DStretch image (filter YRD) of the second, larger serpent that measures 155 cm (61 inches) in length.

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Madison Flake Point ->

Length = 28.36 mm,

Width = 14.53 mm,

Thickness = 3.14 mm

Weight = 1.0 grams


A series of faint pictographs in carbon are painted near the mouth of horned serpents 1, 2, 3, and 4. In fact, each serpent has "caught" a black figure in its mouth.

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<- Madison point (most likely Crescent chert)

Length = 28.88 mm, Width = 17.64 mm, Thickness = 3.14 mm, and weight = 1.32 grams.

<- Rice Side Notched point out of heat treated Crescent chert

Length = 58.04 mm,

Width = 26.72 mm,

Thickness = 9.66 mm,

Weight = 13.50 grams

Large bone awl. Length = 14.4 cm, width = 1.4 cm, thickness = 1.1 cm, and weight = 12.51 grams. 

The bone awl is not decorated so it seems unlikely that it is a hair pin. It may have been an awl for working with hides, but a second possibility is that it was used for giving tattoos. It is larger than most awls.

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Groeper Shelter (23WN1177)

A large petroglyph with concentric circles (often considered a Sun symbol) carved into the vertical face of a breakdown block, just a few meters away from the pictograph of the horned serpents. Scale is 1 meter. Another boulder is decorated a petroglyph of a thunderbird (photograph by Mike Chervinko).

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Madison point ->

Length = 25.98 mm, Width = 23.90 mm,

Thickness = 5.03 mm,

Weight = 2.43 grams

<- Serrated Cahokia 5

notched point.

Length = 18.21 mm,

width = 13.73 mm,

thickness = 3.54 mm,

and weight = 0.49 grams.

Two more dStretch (filters IDS and IBK) of the black bird, six horned serpents, and their prey. The bird above the six horned serpents could be harassing the serpents for raiding its nest.

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dStretch filter YBK gives a little more detail on the black pictograph figures caught by the horned serpents. The black pigment, stick-like legs under Serpent 3 looks like the crane pictographs at Picture Cave and Graham Cave. The black pictograph being attacked by Serpent 2 is problematic but could easily be a bird in flight. 

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<- Cahokia 5 notched point. Length = 22.80 mm, width = 14.12 mm, thickness = 2.92 mm and weight = 0.61 grams.

Madison Point ->

[Unmeasured]

DStretch (filter YRE) of a small, faint red pictograph approximately a meter to the right of the chain of serpents. C-14 sample no. 3 by Dr. Karen Steelman.


pXRF analysis 14: Antimony = 61.16 ppm +/- 12.69, Tin = 52.56 ppm +/- 11.5, Cadmium = 20.08 ppm +/- 9.26, Zirconium = 27.61 ppm +/- 7.67, Iron = 10389 +/- 175.58, Manganese = 60.06 ppm +/- 38.75, Barium = 415.54 ppm +/- 45.51, and Strontium = 11.46 ppm +/- 2.78.

pXRF analysis 15: Iron = 0.314% +/- 0.014 and Aluminum = 99.683 ppm +/- 0.006

dStretched image using filter YRE that darkens and sharpens the red ochre painting on the wall of Groeper Shelter. The six horned serpents finds a close parallel in the Spiro Mound engraved shell cup illustrated by Henry Hamilton (1952: 70, Plate 110). The Spiro engraved cup with 4 horned, winged serpents could easily be thought as representing the cardinal directions. The symbolism of 6 serpents could be the cardinal directions, up, and down.


pXRF analysis 8 (serpent 2): Antimony = 47.68 ppm +/- 13.53, Tin = 33.58 ppm +/- 12.23, Zirconium = 30.8 ppm +/- 8.32, Gold = 13.2 ppm +/- 8.52, Nickel = 37.49 ppm +/- 24.91, Iron = 1318.4 ppm +/- 71.78, Barium = 467.03 ppm +/- 49.44, and Strontium = 10.03 ppm +/- 2.95. 

pXRF analysis 5 (serpent 2): Iron = 0.144% +/- 0.018 and Aluminum = 99.854%.

pXRF analysis 12 (background below pictograph): Antimony = 47.42 ppm +/- 12.19, Tin = 20.49 ppm +/- 10.83, Zirconium = 34.37 ppm +/- 7.54, Iron = 249.46 ppm +/- 35.05, Barium = 355.99 ppm +/- 43.86, and Strontium = 2.62.

pXRF analysis 13 (repeat reading on background below pictograph): Antimony = 47.79 ppm +/- 11.96, Tin = 30.97 ppm +/- 10.77, Cadmium = 13.45 ppm +/- 8.74, Zirconium = 22.4 ppm +/- 7.24, Iron = 182.3 +/- 31.83, Barium = 357.28 ppm +/- 43.03, and Strontium = 9.97 ppm +/- 2.6

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Madison point - >

Length = 19.26 mm, Width = 13.61 mm, Thickness = 2.85 mm, Weight = 0.66 grams

<- Impact damaged Cahokia 5 notched

point. Length = 24.16 mm,

width = 15.24 mm, thickness = 3.79 mm, and weight = 1.12

grams.

<- Cahokia Bi-Notched point

Length = 16.23 mm,

Width = 10.88 mm,

Thickness = 2.17 mm,

Weight = 0.29 grams



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A curving red pictograph terminating in a bi-lobed arrow (?) painted on the ceiling of Groeper Shelter (23WN1177). Another bird-like red pictograph can be seen on the lower left quarter of the image. Numerous black pigment figures can be seen on the lower right quarter of the image; all are very faint but have bird-like form.

pXRF analysis 35: Antimony = 68.57 ppm +/- 14.08, Tin = 38.25 ppm +/- 12.57, Cadmium = 21.6 ppm +/- 10.25, Zirconium = 26.22 ppm +/- 8.46, Nickel = 44.61 ppm +/- 25.76, Iron = 6379.65 ppm +/- 152.61, Barium = 462.21 ppm +/- 50.56, and Strontium = 13.5 ppm +/- 3.15.

pXRF analysis 34: Iron = 0.549% +/- 0.02, and Aluminum = 99.448% +/- 0.011

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Cahokia bi-notched point ->

Length = 20.15 mm,

Width = 13.83 mm,

Thickness = 2.96 mm,

Weight = 0.65 grams


Red figure with black pigment where the head should be situated; this pictograph that was painted on the ceiling of the cave. This pictograph illustrated by Carol Diaz-Granados (1993:Figure 21.3c) as a drawing in her dissertation. Scale is 20 cm. C-14 sample no. 1 by Dr. Karen Steelman.

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<- Mississippian Point

Length = 44.35 mm,

width = 15.00 mm, thickness = 4.36 mm, and weight = 2.27 grams.

Cupp Point from the Mississippian Period

with a prominent burin from the tip.

Length = 98.94 mm, width = 39.18 mm, 

thickness = 8.84 mm, and weight = 32.94 grams.  -->

dStretched closeup image of the rattle tail of the last horned serpent. A black pigment oval is positioned by its mouth. The triangle above the last horned serpent is clearly intentional, but not easily explained.

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<- Serrated Scallorn Point

Length = 20.39 mm,

Width = 12.07 mm,

Thickness = 2.85 mm

Weight = 0.55 grams

Black pigment pictograph on the ceiling of the shelter. My best interpretation is that it could represent a hunting net. Photograph by Mike Chervinko. A thousand thanks to the landowner's relative who took the reading when Dr. Fuller was to dizzy to stand on the ledge and hold the pXRF!

pXRF analysis 36: Antimony = 83.95 ppm +/- 16.05, Tin = 55.13 ppm +/- 14.47, Cadmium = 19.75 ppm +/- 11.54, Silver = 122.45 ppm +/- 17.36, Zirconium = 45.71 ppm +/- 9.86, Iron = 229.17 ppm +/- 44.42, Barium = 535 ppm +/- 57.57, and Strontium = 11.22 ppm +/- 3.47

pXRF analysis 37: Iron = 0.47% +/- 0.009, and Aluminum = 99.948% +/- 0.001.

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Boulder of goethite found approximately 30 meters outside of the shelter overhang in erosion deposits. pXRF sample 33: Molybdenum = 0.24% +/- 0.056, Cobalt = 0.65% +/- 0.144, Iron = 96.298% +/- 0.234, Manganese = 0.148% +/- 0.042, and Titanium = 0.252% +/- 0.061. 

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Bibliography



Coltman, Jeremy D.

2015  In the Realm of the Witz': Animate Rivers and Rulership among the Classic Maya. PARI Journal 15(3):15-20.

http://www.mesoweb.com/pari/publications/journal/1503/Coltman2015.pdf


Diaz-Granados, Carol

1993 The Petroglyphs and Pictographs of Missouri: A Distributional, Stylistic, Contextual, Functional and Temporal Analysis of the State's Rock Graphics. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Washington University , St. Louis, Missouri.

Diaz-Granados, Carol and James Duncan

2000 Petroglyphs and Pictographs of Missouri. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.

Duncan, James and Carol Diaz-Granados

2004 Empowering the SECC: The “Old Woman” and Oral Tradition in The Rock Art of Eastern North America. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.


LaFlesche, Francis

1932. A Dictionary of the Osage Language. Smithsonian Institution, Washington.


Hamilton, Henry

1952 The Spiro Mound. Missouri Archaeologist 14.


Trubitt, Mary Beth

1994 Household Status, Marine Shell Bead Production, and the Development of Cahokia in the Mississippian Period. Ph.D dissertation at Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois.




Cahokia Bi-notched point ->

Length = 20.31 mm, 

Width = 12.62 mm,

Thickness = 3.16 mm

Weight = 0.59 grams

<- Synder's point from the Middle Woodland Period 

Length = 79.97 mm, Width = 49.19 mm, Thickness = 7.82 mm, and weight = 24.4 grams.

Michael Fuller