Michael Fuller

Red abstract pictograph normal photograph and DStretch (filter LABI)

pXRF sample 270: Barium = 459.00 ppm +/- 38.96, Antimony = 49.88 ppm +/- 10.35, Tin = 30.59 ppm +/- 8.19, Cadmium = 21.55 ppm +/- 7.68, Zirconium = 51.98 ppm +/- 6.88, Strontium = 8.89 ppm +/- 2.04, Zinc = 9.06 ppm +/- 4.59, and Iron = 588.91 +/- 38.07

pXRF sample 259: Zirconium = 0.035% +/- 0.013, Iron = 0.317% +/- 0.093, Niobium = 0.080% +/- 0.033, and Silicon = 99.35% +/- 1.165

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Hand outline with swirls in the palm in Panel 8. C-14 sample no. 4 by Dr. Karen Steelman.

pXRF analysis 292: Barium 471.45 ppm +/- 40.34, Antimony = 62.73 ppm +/- 10.81, Tin = 35.28 ppm +/- 8.52, Cadmium = 26.03 ppm +/- 8.00, Silver = 11.94 ppm +/- 5.54, Zirconium = 46.31 ppm +/- 7.05, Strontium = 8.13 ppm +/- 2.09, Zirconium = 8.31 ppm +/- 4.74, and Iron = 552.93 ppm +/- 38.49

pXRF analysis 297: Zirconium = 0.031% +/- 0.006, Iron = 0.426% +/- 0.054, Niobium = 0.044% +/- 0.015, Aluminum = 0.303% +/- 0.303, and Silicon = 97.164% +/- 1.156

pXRF Background Reading no. 294: Barium = 453.06 ppm +/- 41.29, Antimony = 69.80 ppm +/- 11.15, Tin = 31.03 ppm +/- 8.72, Cadmium = 30.80 ppm +/- 8.26, Silver = 23.16 ppm +/- 5.85, Zirconium = 58.54 ppm +/- 7.38, Strontium = 12.20 ppm +/- 2.25, Iron = 290.42 ppm +/- 31.75, 
pXRF Background Reading no. 295: Zirconium = 0.047% +/- 0.008, Iron = 0.253 % +/- 0.053, Niobium = 0.047% +/- 0.019, Aluminum = 1.740% +/- 0.327, and Silicon = 97.888% +/- 1.336.

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Red pictograph on the on the left side of Panel 6 (ceiling) has been described (Diaz-Granados and Duncan 2000:171) as a resembling a bow-tie variety of bannerstone surrounded by a series of red dots. The bow-tie pictograph measures 9 cm. in length. Natural light and DStretch filter YRE images. C-14 date #2 by Dr. Karen Steelman = AD 230 - 530.


pXRF reading 281: Barium = 463.00 ppm +/- 40.33, Antimony = 62.94 ppm +/- 10.81, Cadmium = 17.33 ppm +/- 7.91, Silver = 19.08 ppm +/- 5.65, Zirconium = 102.30 +/- 7.74, Strontium = 19.54 ppm +/- 2.38, Copper = 23.35 ppm +/- 10.19, and Iron = 678.09 ppm +- 41.66.

pXRF reading 284: Zirconium = 0.056% +/- 0.008, Iron = 0.554% +/- 0.066, Niobium = 0.054% +/- 0.018, Aluminum = 1.417% +/- 0.267, and Silicon = 97.898% +/- 1.188. 


pXRF background 282: Barium = 398.26 ppm +/- 40.51, Antimony = 51.79 ppm +/- 10.86, Tin = 28.88 ppm +/- 8.58, Cadmium = 20.43 ppm +/- 8.04, Silver = 12.87 ppm +/- 5.63, Zirconium = 331.84 ppm +/- 9.83, Strontium = 30.11 ppm +/- 2.65, Rubidium = 3.67 ppm +/- 1.51, Zinc = 13.13 ppm +/- 5.06, Copper = 23.83 ppm +/- 10.29, and Iron = 417.28 ppm +/- 35.16

pXRF background 283: Zirconium = 0.167% +/- 0.012, Iron = 0.288% +/- 0.056, Niobium = 0.081% +/- 0.020, Aluminum = 0.988% +/- 0.272, and Silicon = 98.441% +/- 1.297

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Quadruped - most likely a deer, but the long tails hints to a Panther in normal photography and DStretch (filter YXX). The trace of lead is worth noting though it seems to be in the bedrock. 

pXRF analysis 235: Barium = 489.41 ppm +/- 40.29, Antimony = 66.11 ppm +/- 10.79, Tin = 37.29 ppm +/- 8.51, Cadmium = 23.17 ppm +/- 7.93, Silver = 18.21 ppm +/- 5.61, Zirconium = 99.51 ppm +/- 7.75, Strontium = 71.22 ppm +/- 3.37, Lead = 19.24 ppm +/- 5.46, Zinc = 21.75 ppm +/- 5.66, Copper = 133.98 ppm +/- 13.90, Iron = 969.58 ppm +/- 47.98, and Chromium = 119.10 ppm +/- 74.

pXRF analysis 242: Zirconium = 0.079% +/- 0.012, Lead = 0.041% +/- 0.009, Copper = 0.209% +/- 0.029, Iron = 1.359% +/- 0.125, Niobium = 0.115% +/- 0.027, Aluminum = 19.076% +/- 0.562, and Silicon = 79.051% +/- 1.79

pXRF analysis of background rock 238: Barium = 422.49 ppm +/- 41.12, Antimony = 55.22 ppm +/- 11.02, Tin = 35.12 ppm +/- 8.74, Cadmium = 19.95 ppm +/- 8.14, Silver = 14.53 ppm +/- 5.72, Zirconium = 91.16 ppm +/- 7.80, Strontium = 36.66 ppm +/- 2.83, Lead = 16.76 ppm +/- 5.49, Zinc = 22.94 ppm +/- 5.82, Copper = 122.59 ppm +/- 14.02, and Iron = 290.62 ppm +/- 31.74

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Red pigment rhombus in panel 6 that was not tested with the pXRF. 

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Small, faint light red pictograph that was not analyzed with pXRF because of low density of pigment. It is situated just to the right of the large red bird (woodpecker?) pictograph in Panel 6. DStretch filter YRE.

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Small bird (Thunderbird) immediately to the right of the thick vertical stripe in Panel 3. DStretch filter YWE.

pXRF analysis 253: Barium = 545.21 ppm +/-  44, Antimony = 72.44 ppm +/- 11.76, Tin = 53.02 ppm +/- 9.40, Cadmium = 24.21 ppm +/- 8.63, Silver = 29.28 ppm +/- 6.26, Zirconium = 58.44 ppm +/- 7.78, Strontium = 12.51 ppm +/- 2.39, Rubidium = 2.35 ppm +/- 1.53, Zinc = 11.68 ppm +/- 5.39, Copper = 27.06 ppm +/- 11.68, and Iron = 548.20 ppm +/- 41.43

pXRF analysis 249: Zirconium 0.066% +/- 0.014, Iron 0.799 % +/- 0.118, Aluminum 2.299% +/- 0.482, and Silicon 96.807% +/- 2.026


pXRF analysis 250 unpainted bedrock: Zirconium = 0.050% +/- 0/013, Iron = 0.340% +/- 0.086, Aluminum = 1.799% +/- 0.456, and Silicon 97.809% +/- 2.368

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Red pictograph split by a fissure in normal photography and DStretch (filter LRD).

pXRF analysis 236: Barium = 476.35 ppm +/- 39.65, Antimony = 63.44 ppm +/- 10.62, Tin = 335.87 ppm +/- 8.37, Cadmium = 21.47 ppm +/- 7.81, Silver = 8.49 ppm +/- 5.39, Zirconium = 26.64 ppm +/- 6.74, Strontium = 18.22 ppm +/- 2.30, Rubidium = 2.11 ppm +/- 1.39, Lead = 15.90 ppm +/- 5.19, Zinc = 9.70 ppm +/- 4.70, Copper = 28.39 ppm +/- 10.10, and Iron = 471.22 ppm +/- 35.68

pXRF analysis 241: Zirconium 0.039% +/- 0.012, Lead = 0.028% +/- 0.010, Iron = 0.660% +/- 0.102, Aluminum = 8.508% +/- 0.553, and Silicon = 90.681% +/- 2.180

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Dr. Michael Fuller (left), Dr. Karen Steelman (center) and Anthony Starr.

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Two hands painted in panel 6. DStretch filter LRE.

pXRF number 275: Barium = 458.62 ppm +/- 40.13, Antimony = 63.86 ppm +/- 10.77, Tin = 39.21 ppm +/- 8.53, Cadmium = 20.96 ppm +/- 7.91, Silver = 13.31 ppm +/- 5.54, Zirconium = 111.61 ppm +/- 7.70, Strontium = 6.63 ppm +/- 2.04, Zinc = 10.22 ppm +/- 4.82, Copper = 20.19 ppm +/- 10.03, and Iron = 295.04 ppm, +/- 30.86.

pXRF number 290: Zirconium = 0.34% +/- 0.014, Iron = 0.364% +/- 0.103, Aluminum = 0.473% +/- 0.181, Silicon = 99.068% +/- 1.218


pXRF Background 265: Barium = 613.70 ppm +/- 48.38, Antimony = 89.17 ppm +/- 12.99, Tin = 55.92 ppm +/- 10.27, Cadmium = 42.80 ppm +/- 9.64, Silver = 26.58 ppm +/- 6.78, Zirconium = 131.72 ppm +/- 9.35, Strontium = 11.60 ppm +/- 2.58, Mercury = 5.91 ppm +/- 3.90,  Zinc = 17.04 ppm +/- 6.29, and Iron = 280.64 ppm +/- 36.03. 

pXRF Background 264: Zirconium = 0.047% +/- 0.007, Iron = 0.292% +/- 0.048, Niobium = 0.056 +/- 0.016, Aluminum = 2.796% +/- 0.279, and Silicon = 96.784% +/- 1.252

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Small stream running against the bluff just down slope from the pictographs.

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Outlined cross in red pigment in Panel 6.

pXRF analysis 279: Barium = 790.822 ppm +/- 57.33, Antimony = 117.59 ppm +/- 15.38, Tin = 78.55 ppm +/- 12.22, Cadmium = 60.02 ppm +/- 11.43, Silver = 48.75 ppm +/- 8.28, Palladium = 9.12 ppm +/- 5.83, Zirconium = 103.91 ppm +/- 10.52, Strontium = 17.95 ppm +/- 3.21, Zinc = 21.05 ppm +/- 7.98, Copper = 28.62 ppm +/- 16.57, and Iron = 621.26 ppm +/- 55.22

pXRF analysis 286: Zirconium = 0.092% +/- 0.026, Iron = 2.683% +/- 0.437, Aluminum = 3.771% +/- 0.784, and Silicon - 93.422% +/- 4.579

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Three part pictograph in normal and DStretch photography (filter YRE) in Panel 6.

pXRF reading 276: Barium = 812.41 ppm +/- 62.87, Antimony = 139.02 ppm +/- 17.06, Tin = 76.28 ppm +/- 13.33, Cadmium = 62.10 ppm +/- 12.55, Silver = 42.55 ppm +/- 8.94, Zirconium = 93.04 ppm +/- 11.33, Strontium = 9.32 ppm +/- 3.21, Mercury = 8.75 ppm +/- 5.73, Zinc = 22.74 +/- 8.93, Copper = 35.96 ppm +/- 19.63, and Iron = 403.60 ppm +/- 52.32

pXRF reading 289: Zirconium = 0.083% +/- 0.029, Iron = 1.506% +/- 0.323, Aluminum = 2.114% +/- 0.933, and Silicon = 96.295% +/- 5.233

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Bibliography

Diaz-Granados, Carol
1993 The Petroglyphs and Pictographs of Missouri: A Distributional, Stylistic, Contextual, Functional and Temporal Analysis of the State's Rock Graphics. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Washington University , St. Louis, Missouri.

Diaz-Granados, Carol and James R. Duncan
2000 The Petroglyphs and Pictographs of Missouri. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.


Goodman, Ronald

1992 Lakota Star Knowledge: Studies in Lakota Stellar Theology. Since Gleska University, Rosebud.


ZigZag line pattern similar to a zigzag in Picture Cave 2; normal light and DStretch filter YRE) in Panel 6.

pXRF reading 268: Barium = 444.60 ppm +/- 41.41, Antimony = 59.38 ppm +/- 11.10, Tin = 37.78 ppm +/- 8.81, Cadmium = 20.00 ppm +/- 8.17, Silver = 17.60 ppm +/- 5.79, Strontium = 11.24 ppm +/- 2.24,  Copper 18.16 ppm +/- 10.38, and Iron = 504.31 ppm +/- 38.36

pXRF reading 261: Zirconium = 0.053% +/- 0.008, Iron = 1.083% +/- 0.089, Aluminum = 1.438% +/- 0.280, and Silicon = 97.361% +/- 1.151

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Crimson pictograph square with rounded corners in normal photograph and DStretch (filter LRD).

pXRF analysis 237: Barium = 533.36 ppm +/- 42.78, Antimony 74.66 ppm +/- 11.46, Tin = 41.11 ppm +/- 9.02, Cadmium = 26.00 ppm +/- 8.41, Silver = 13.61 ppm +/- 5.86, Zirconium = 53.49 ppm +/- 7.66, Strontium = 49.41 ppm +/- 3.19, Rubidium = 3.87 ppm +/- 1.67, Lead = 844.97 ppm +/- 21.02, Zinc = 20.04 ppm +/- 5.86, Copper = 96.87 ppm +/- 13.75, and Iron = 1839.96 ppm +/- 67.31

pXRF analysis (unpainted wall) 238: Barium = 422.49 +/- 41.12, Antimony = 55.22 ppm +/- 11.02, Tin = 35.12 +/- 8.74, Cadmium = 19.95 ppm +/- 8.14, Silver = 14.53 ppm +/- 5.72, Zirconium = 91.16 ppm +/- 7.80, Strontium = 36.66 ppm +/- 2.83, Lead = 16.76 +/- 5.49, Zinc = 22.94 ppm +/- 5.82, Copper = 122.59 ppm +/- 14.02, and Iron = 290.62 pp, +/- 31.74

pXRF analysis (unpainted wall) 239: Zirconium = 0.078% +/- 0.016, Iron = 0.460% +/- 0.101, Aluminum = 19.892% +/- 0.667, and Silicon = 79.523% +/- 2.558

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Two halves pictograph in normal and DStretch photography (filter YRE) in Panel 6.

pXRF reading 266: Barium = 561.91 ppm +/- 43.00, Antimony = 93.05 ppm +/- 11.65, Tin = 42.92 ppm +/- 9.13, Cadmium = 36.94 ppm +/- 8.55, Silver = 27.35 ppm +/- 6.08, Palladium = 6.76 ppm +/- 4.44, Zirconium = 81.40 ppm +/- 7.86, Strontium = 20.95 ppm +/- 2.54, Rubidium = 2.56 ppm +/- 1.52, Zinc = 14.17 ppm +/- 5.34, Copper = 26.56 ppm +/- 11.10, and Iron = 392.64 ppm +/- 35.90

pXRF reading 263: Zirconium = 0.029% +/- 0.007, Iron = 0.405% +/- 0.060, Niobium = 0.037% +/- 0.018, Aluminum = 1.755% +/- 0.312, and Silicon = 97.752% +/- 1.307

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Several handprint pictographs at the Deer Run Shelter site are very interesting.  The digital photographs were processed through Stretch filter LRE to give clarity. Panel 8 has a spiral pattern on the palm of the hand that remind me of pictographs inNatural Bridges National Monument in Utah. Radiocarbon date by Dr. Karen Steelman = AD 260-540.

pXRF Reading no. 292: Barium = 471.45 ppm +/- 40.34, Antimony = 62.73 ppm +/- 10.81, Tin = 35.38 ppm +/- 8.52, Cadmium = 26.03 ppm +/- 8.00, Silver = 11.94 ppm +/- 5.54, Zirconium = 46.31 ppm +/- 7.05 ppm, Strontium = 8.13 ppm +/- 2.09, Zinc = 8.31 ppm +/- 4.74, and Iron = 552.93 ppm +/- 38.49.

pXRFReading no. 297: Zirconium = 0.031% +/- 0.006, Iron = 0.426% +/- 0.054, Niobium = 0.044% +/- 0.015, Aluminum = 2.303% +/- 0.303, and Silicon = 97.164% +/- 1.156.


pXRF Background Reading no. 294: Barium = 453.06 ppm +/- 41.29, Antimony = 69.80 ppm +/- 11.15, Tin = 31.03 ppm +/- 8.72, Cadmium = 30.80 ppm +/- 8.26, Silver = 23.16 ppm +/- 5.85, Zirconium = 58.54 ppm +/- 7.38, Strontium = 12.20 ppm +/- 2.25, Iron = 290.42 ppm +/- 31.75, 

pXRF Background Reading no. 295: Zirconium = 0.047% +/- 0.008, Iron = 0.253 % +/- 0.053, Niobium = 0.047% +/- 0.019, Aluminum = 1.740% +/- 0.327, and Silicon = 97.888% +/- 1.336.

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Long tailed (panther?) red pictograph in Panel 2.

pXRF analysis 231: Barium = 690.35 ppm +/- 53.78, Antimony = 119.38 ppm +/- 14.60, Tin = 69.25 ppm +/- 11.49, Cadmium = 46.27 ppm +/- 10.67, Silver = 41.28 ppm +/- 7.73, Zirconium = 117.95 ppm +/- 10.15, Strontium = 14.88 ppm +/- 2.95, Rubidium = 5.09 ppm +/- 2.01, Zinc = 18.25 ppm +/- 7.26, Copper = 35.44 ppm +/- 15.66, and Iron = 568.73 ppm +/- 50.83

pXRF analysis 228: Zirconium = 0.124% +/- 0.022, Iron = 1.007% +/- 0.166, Aluminum = 1.460% +/- 0.464, Sulphur = 0.003% +/- 0.001, Phosphorus = 0.004% +/- 0.001, and Silicon = 97.402% +/- 3.082

pXRF analysis 230 (Background):Barium = 516.61 ppm +/- 45.20, Antimony = 76.47 ppm +/- 12.17, Tin = 53.07 ppm +/- 9.69, Cadmium = 31.34 ppm +/- 8.98, Silver = 25.52 ppm +/- 6.39, Zirconium = 180.64 ppm +/- 9.36, Strontium = 12.59 ppm +/- 2.47, Zinc = 14.59 ppm +/- 5.78, Copper = 23.52 ppm +/- 11.96, and Iron = 244.51 ppm +/- 32.99

pXRF analysis 229 (Background): Zirconium = 0.178% +/- 0.022, Iron = 0.289% +/- 0.102, Aluminum = 0.682% +/- 0.324, and Silicon = 98.849% +/- 1.959

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Two hour-glass symbols (lower one filled and upper one just an outline) in Panel 6. Dstretch filter CRGB. This is more of a crimson red pigment. The hourglass design also appears in the Picture Cave pictographs. A plausible ethnographic parallel to the hourglass pictographs comes from recent ethnographic research among the Lakota that was conducted by Goodman (1992: 16). His informants identify this symbol as Kapemni which means "twisting" with the top cone as the symbol of the sun/stars and the bottom cone as the symbol of the earth; "what is above is like what is below - what is below is like what is above." The best way to describe this symbol as the connection between Sun-Earth, the celestial and terrestrial (https://sunearthday.nasa.gov/2005/na/lakota.htm). 


pXRF reading 269: Barium = 590.05 ppm +/- 43.66, Antimony = 75.38 ppm +/- 11.63, Tin = 53.84 ppm +/- 9.27, Cadmium = 30.74 ppm +/- 8.58, Silver = 21.50 ppm +/- 6.06, Zirconium 46.08 ppm +/- 7.55, Strontium = 19.80 ppm +/- 2.54, Zinc = 15.51 ppm +/- 5.50, and Iron = 885.10 ppm +/- 49.49.

pXRF reading 260: Zirconium = 0.020 +/- 0.006, Iron = 0.865% +/- 0.073, Aluminum = 3.680% +/- 0.317, and Silicon = 95.405% +/- 1.186.


pXRF Background 265: Barium = 613.70 ppm +/- 48.38, Antimony = 89.17 ppm +/- 12.99, Tin = 55.92 ppm +/- 10.27, Cadmium = 42.80 ppm +/- 9.64, Silver = 26.58 ppm +/- 6.78, Zirconium = 131.72 ppm +/- 9.35, Strontium = 11.60 ppm +/- 2.58, Mercury = 5.91 ppm +/- 3.90,  Zinc = 17.04 ppm +/- 6.29, and Iron = 280.64 ppm +/- 36.03. 
pXRF Background 264: Zirconium = 0.047% +/- 0.007, Iron = 0.292% +/- 0.048, Niobium = 0.056 +/- 0.016, Aluminum = 2.796% +/- 0.279, and Silicon = 96.784% +/- 1.252.

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Red pictograph in panel 3 of an animal that on first glance resembles a dog, but the faint horns on the top of the head resemble bison. Who knows? Natural and DStretch (filter YRE) images. The pictograph measures 16 cm. in length. 


pXRF reading 233: Barium = 470.41 ppm +/- 41.63, Antimony = 70.31 ppm +/- 11.21, Tin = 39.37 ppm +/- 8.84, Cadmium = 24.43 ppm +/- 8.24, Silver = 21.02 ppm +/- 5.86, Zirconium = 37.70 ppm +/- 7.34, Strontium = 59.70 ppm +/- 3.30, Rubidium = 2.32 ppm +/- 1.49, Lead = 47.77 ppm +/- 6.72, Arsenic = 9.18 ppm +/- 5.05, Zinc = 18.79 ppm +/- 5.55, Copper = 48.10 ppm +/- 11.63, and Iron = 1018.62 ppm +/- 50.85.
pXRF reading 244: Zirconium = 0.051% +/- 0.009, Lead = 0.076% +/- 0.010, Iron = 1.425% +/- 0.117, Niobium 0.046% +/- 0.022, Aluminum = 5.324% +/- 0.383, and Silica = 93.009% +/- 1.421.  


pXRF background reading 238: Barium = 422.49 ppm +/- 31.12, Antiomy = 55.22 ppm +/- 11.02, Tin = 35.12 ppm +/- 8.74, Cadmium = 19.95 ppm +/- 8.14, Silver = 14.53 ppm +/- 5.72, Zirconium = 91.16 ppm +/- 7.80, Strontium = 36.66 ppm +/- 2.83, Lead = 16.75 ppm +/- 5.49, Zinc = 22.94 ppm +/- 5.82, Copper = 122.59 +/- 14.02, and Iron = 290.62 ppm +/- 31.74.
pXRF background reading 239: Zirconium = 0.078% +/- 0.016, Iron = 0.460% +/- 0.101, Aluminum = 19.892% +/- 0.667, Silicon = 79.523% +/- 2.558. 

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Double zig-zag red pictograph in Panel 6. Normal photography and DStretch (filter LRD)

pXRF sample 277: Barium = 464.30 ppm +/- 40.77, Antimony 65.52 +/- 10.95, Tin = 35.19 ppm +/- 8.62, Cadmium = 23.15 ppm +/- 8.06, Silver 14.21 ppm +/- 5.64, Zirconium = 100.02 ppm +/- 7.72, Strontium = 14.37 ppm +/- 2.28, Rubidium = 2.23 ppm +/- 1.43, Mercury = 4.65 ppm +/- 3.09, Copper = 17.26 ppm +/- 10.03, and Iron = 299.26 ppm +/- 31.42

pXRF sample 288: Zirconium = 0.064% +/- 0.007, Iron = 0.269% +/- 0.046, Niobium = 0.052% +/- 0.016, Aluminum = 1.245% +/- 0.275, and Silicon = 98.338% +/- 1.224

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The Deer Run Shelter Site is located on private property in an isolated location in Southeast Missouri; it is not open to the public. The site was first described by Carol Diaz-Granados (1993:538 - 433, illustrations 11.1 to 11.7) in her dissertation. It is discussed in the Petroglyphs and Pictographs of Missouri (Diaz-Granados and Duncan 2000:55, 106, 110, 111, 128, 164, 171, 181, 183, 191, 223, 242, 246, 250,  Figure 55.4, F-7). The site is only the second example of both pictographs and petroglyphs at the same site. I spent a day at the Deer Run Shelter pictograph site on 26 October 2022 and returned on 16 January 2023.

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Red "Y" pictograph with a black cross-in-circle pictograph overpainting the vertical leg of the "Y" in panel 6. 

pXRF of red pigment reading 272: Barium = 504.71 ppm +/- 43.64, Antimony = 72.35 ppm +/- 11.73, Tin = 39.90 ppm +/- 9.23, Cadmium = 31.24 ppm +/- 8.68, Silver = 18.68 ppm +/- 6.08, Zirconium = 68.01 ppm +/- 7.87, Strontium = 13.35 ppm +/- 2.40, and Iron = 1050.87 ppm +/- 53.75

pXRF of red pigment reading 256: Zirconium = 0.074% +/- 0.011, Iron = 1.072% +/- 0.109, Aluminum = 0.906% +/- 0.306, Phosphorus 0.002% +/- 0.001, and Silicon = 97.942% +/- 1.500

pXRF of nearby unpainted bedrock reading 257: Niobium = 0.256% +/- 0.097%, and Aluminum = 98.211% +/- 0.4453

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Hunter in Panel 3, DStretch filter YRE. C-14 date by Dr. Karen Steelman = AD 1425 - 1635.

pXRF reading 232: Barium = 649.37 ppm +/- 48.37, Antimony 95.04 ppm +/- 12.97, Tin = 68.97 ppm +/- 12.97, Tin = 68.97 ppm +/- 10.36, Cadmium = 37.13 ppm +/- 9.52, Silver = 30.33 ppm +/- 10.36, Zirconium = 61.36 ppm +/- 8.83, Strontium = 120.18 ppm +/- 4.83, Lead = 37.87 ppm +/- 7.29, Zinc = 13.63 ppm +/- 6.04, Copper = 39.55 ppm +/- 13.57, and Iron = 907.85 ppm +/- 55.03.

pXRF reading 245: Zirconium = 0.120% +/- 0.034, Lead = 0.088% +/- 0.029, Iron = 1.367% +/- 0.276, Aluminum = 11.693% +/- 0.890, and Silicon = 86.575% +/- 4.234.


pXRF background reading 238: Barium = 422.49 ppm +/- 31.12, Antiomy = 55.22 ppm +/- 11.02, Tin = 35.12 ppm +/- 8.74, Cadmium = 19.95 ppm +/- 8.14, Silver = 14.53 ppm +/- 5.72, Zirconium = 91.16 ppm +/- 7.80, Strontium = 36.66 ppm +/- 2.83, Lead = 16.75 ppm +/- 5.49, Zinc = 22.94 ppm +/- 5.82, Copper = 122.59 +/- 14.02, and Iron = 290.62 ppm +/- 31.74.

pXRF background reading 239: Zirconium = 0.078% +/- 0.016, Iron = 0.460% +/- 0.101, Aluminum = 19.892% +/- 0.667, Silicon = 79.523% +/- 2.558. 

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Red pictograph on the right side of panel 6 that resembles an atlatl with a rectangular bannerstone. The pictograph measures 32 cm in length. DStretch filter YRE.


pXRF reading 271: Barium = 507.32 ppm +/- 43.33, Antimony = 83.73 ppm +/- 11.72, Tin = 45.35 ppm +/- 9.22, Cadmium = 21.19 ppm +/- 8.50, Silver = 23.77 ppm +/- 6.11, Zirconium = 192.80 ppm +/- 9.12, Strontium = 23.07 ppm +/- 2.63, Rubidium = 2.88 ppm +/- 1.55, Zinc = 8.99 ppm +/- 5.18, Copper = 16.73 ppm +/- 10.99, and Iron = 358.69 ppm +/- 35.41.

pXRF reading 258: Zirconium = 0.099% +/- 0.012, Iron = 0.474% +/- 0.078, Niobium = 0.058% +/- 0.023, Aluminum = 2.437% +/- 0.404, and Silicon = 96.887% +/- 1.741.


pXRF Background 265: Barium = 613.70 ppm +/- 48.38, Antimony = 89.17 ppm +/- 12.99, Tin = 55.92 ppm +/- 10.27, Cadmium = 42.80 ppm +/- 9.64, Silver = 26.58 ppm +/- 6.78, Zirconium = 131.72 ppm +/- 9.35, Strontium = 11.60 ppm +/- 2.58, Mercury = 5.91 ppm +/- 3.90,  Zinc = 17.04 ppm +/- 6.29, and Iron = 280.64 ppm +/- 36.03. 
pXRF Background 264: Zirconium = 0.047% +/- 0.007, Iron = 0.292% +/- 0.048, Niobium = 0.056 +/- 0.016, Aluminum = 2.796% +/- 0.279, and Silicon = 96.784% +/- 1.252.

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The largest pictograph at the Deer Run Shelter site is a red abstract pattern that is situated in panel 6. Eric Fuller proposes that this is an abstract representation of a pileated woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus). Natural and DStretch (filter YRE) photographic images.


pXRF reading 274: Barium 981.00 ppm +/- 72.78, Antimony 166.69 ppm +/- 19.71, Tin = 121.93 ppm +/- 15.78, Cadmium = 71.12 ppm +/- 14.43, Silver = 49.39 ppm +/- 10.31, Zirconium = 90.96 ppm +/- 12.91, Strontium = 18.63 ppm +/- 4.05, Mercury = 10.49 ppm +/- 6.98, Zinc = 17.01 ppm +/- 9.95, and Iron = 835.20 ppm +/- 77.35. 
pXRF reading 291: Zirconium = 0.043% +/- 0.015, Iron = 0.475 +/- 0.113, Sulphur = 0.003% +/- 0.001, Phosphorus = 0.004% +/- 0.001, and Silica = 98.353% +/- 3.210. A rare example of a trace of sulphur in the pigment suggesting either pyrite or gypsum. 


pXRF Background 265: Barium = 613.70 ppm +/- 48.38, Antimony = 89.17 ppm +/- 12.99, Tin = 55.92 ppm +/- 10.27, Cadmium = 42.80 ppm +/- 9.64, Silver = 26.58 ppm +/- 6.78, Zirconium = 131.72 ppm +/- 9.35, Strontium = 11.60 ppm +/- 2.58, Mercury = 5.91 ppm +/- 3.90,  Zinc = 17.04 ppm +/- 6.29, and Iron = 280.64 ppm +/- 36.03. 
pXRF Background 264: Zirconium = 0.047% +/- 0.007, Iron = 0.292% +/- 0.048, Niobium = 0.056 +/- 0.016, Aluminum = 2.796% +/- 0.279, and Silicon = 96.784% +/- 1.252.

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Faint red pictograph of a turtle in Panel 6. It is always interesting to wonder if the pictograph was related to the turtle constellation of the Lakota nation as described by Ronald Goodman 2017:60-1). Natural and DStretch (filter YRE) photography. This pictograph was not analyzed with pXRF because it is very faint and is situated on the ceiling where analysis if more problematic.

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Red pigment abstract/figurative (profile of a long tail quadruped?) split by a horizontal crack in Panel 3

pXRF analysis 234: Barium = 611.59 ppm +/- 45.53, Antimony = 81.92 ppm +/- 12.16, Tin = 59.93 ppm +/- 9.70 , Cadmium = 37.32 ppm +/- 9.00, Silver = 24.90 ppm +/- 6.36, Palladium = 10.62 ppm +/- 4.74, Zirconium = 76.67 ppm +/- 8.32, Strontium = 53.08 ppm +/- 3.40, Lead = 37.88 ppm +/- 6.86, Zinc = 34.86 ppm +/- 7.13, Copper = 157.44 ppm +/- 16.60, Iron = 866.96 ppm +/- 51.17, and Manganese = 52.60 ppm +/- 33.44

pXRF analysis 243: Zirconium = 0.065% +/- 0.014, Lead = 0.059% +/- 0.012, Copper = 0.108% +/- 0.029,  Iron = 1.354% +/- 0.155, Aluminum = 12.724% +/- 0.678, and Silicon = 85.655% +/- 2.442

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Red pigment pictograph of a diagonal streak with two dots beneath in Panel 6. DStretch filter YRE.

pXRF analysis 273: Barium = 527.89 ppm +/- 47.22, Antimony = 68.93 ppm +/- 12.62, Tin = 41.55 ppm +/- 9.97, Cadmium = 28.60 ppm +/- 9.32, Silver = 19.13 ppm +/- 6.56, Zirconium = 328.49 ppm +/- 11.21, Strontium = 17.22 ppm +/- 2.70, Zinc = 9.19 ppm +/- 5.43, and Iron = 1167.35 ppm +/- 60.35

pXRF analysis 255: Zirconium = 0.219% +/- 0.037, Iron = 1.708% +/- 0.266, Sulfur = 0.003% +/- 0.001, Phosphorus = 0.004% +/- 0.001, and Silicon = 96.678% +/- 3.688 [The Sulfur and Phosphorus in this pigment is very unusual and remarkable. The Sulfur might be derived from a small amount of gypsum added to the Iron pigment.  The source of the Phosphorus will take further research.

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Pair of nested oval pictographs in normal photography and DStretch (filter YRE) in Panel 8.

pXRF reading 293 (left pictograph): Barium = 790.81 ppm +/- 57.24, Antimony = 123.09 ppm +/- 15.40, Tin = 86.36 ppm +/- 12.29, Cadmium = 54.22 ppm +/- 11.34, Silver = 45.26 ppm +/- 8.21, Palladium = 9.97 ppm +/- 5.84, Zirconium = 86.85 ppm +/- 5.84, Strontium = 13.66 ppm +/- 3.07, Rubidium = 3.05 ppm +/- 2.01, Zinc = 24.69 ppm +/- 8.12, Copper = 37.96 ppm +/- 17.00, and Iron = 350.23 +/- 45.34

pXRF reading 296 (left pictograph): Zirconium = 0.021% +/- 0.005, Iron = 0.223% +/- 0.039, Niobium = 0.055% +/- 0.014, Aluminum = 0.842% +/- 0.243, and Silicon = 98.821% +/- 1.053

pXRF Background Reading no. 294: Barium = 453.06 ppm +/- 41.29, Antimony = 69.80 ppm +/- 11.15, Tin = 31.03 ppm +/- 8.72, Cadmium = 30.80 ppm +/- 8.26, Silver = 23.16 ppm +/- 5.85, Zirconium = 58.54 ppm +/- 7.38, Strontium = 12.20 ppm +/- 2.25, Iron = 290.42 ppm +/- 31.75, 
pXRF Background Reading no. 295: Zirconium = 0.047% +/- 0.008, Iron = 0.253 % +/- 0.053, Niobium = 0.047% +/- 0.019, Aluminum = 1.740% +/- 0.327, and Silicon = 97.888% +/- 1.336.

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Sun/Starburst pictograph measuring 20 x 21 cm in Panel 6. DStretch filter YRE.

pXRF reading 280: Barium = 699.80 ppm +/- 50.42, Antimony = 109.36 ppm +/- 13.58, Tin = 63.31 ppm +/- 10.68, Cadmium = 42.46 ppm +/- 9.94, Silver = 31.82 ppm +/- 7.08, Zirconium = 166.70 ppm +/- 10.06, Strontium = 17.92 ppm +/- 2.85, Rubidium = 4.05 ppm +/- 1.84, Zinc = 17.21 ppm +/- 6.59, Copper = 26.47 ppm +/- 13.70, and Iron = 620.25 ppm +/- 48.98

pXRF reading 285: Zirconium = 0.065% +/- 0.016, Iron = 1.250% +/- 0.173, Aluminum = 1.893% +/- 0.480, Silica = 96.709% +/- 2.613

pXRF background 282: Barium = 398.26 ppm +/- 40.51, Antimony = 51.79 ppm +/- 10.86, Tin = 28.88 ppm +/- 8.58, Cadmium = 20.43 ppm +/- 8.04, Silver = 12.87 ppm +/- 5.63, Zirconium = 331.84 ppm +/- 9.83, Strontium = 30.11 ppm +/- 2.65, Rubidium = 3.67 ppm +/- 1.51, Zinc = 13.13 ppm +/- 5.06, Copper = 23.83 ppm +/- 10.29, and Iron = 417.28 ppm +/- 35.16
pXRF background 283: Zirconium = 0.167% +/- 0.012, Iron = 0.288% +/- 0.056, Niobium = 0.081% +/- 0.020, Aluminum = 0.988% +/- 0.272, and Silicon = 98.441% +/- 1.297

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Normal and DStretch photography (filter LBK) of an abstract design resembling a "X". Two faint black figures are at each upper arm of the "X" suggesting that this might also be a Kapemni symbol. In Panel 6.

pXRF analysis 278: Barium = 500.45 ppm +/- 43.76, Antimony = 77.26 ppm +/- 11.83, Tin = 54.43 ppm +/- 9.40, Cadmium = 44.37 ppm +/- 8.85, Silver = 19.50 ppm +/- 6.11, Zirconium = 163.99 ppm +/- 8.93, Strontium = 19.04 pp, +/- 2.56, Rubidium = 3.45 ppm +/- 1.59, Zinc = 9.51 ppm +/- 5.30, Copper = 17.52 ppm +/- 11.14, and Iron = 1353.12 ppm +/- 60.11

pXRF analysis 287: Zirconium = 0.087% +/- 0.010, Iron = 1.456% +/- 0.113, Aluminum = 1.683% +/- 0.339, and Silica = 96.746% +/- 1.385

pXRF background 282: Barium = 398.26 ppm +/- 40.51, Antimony = 51.79 ppm +/- 10.86, Tin = 28.88 ppm +/- 8.58, Cadmium = 20.43 ppm +/- 8.04, Silver = 12.87 ppm +/- 5.63, Zirconium = 331.84 ppm +/- 9.83, Strontium = 30.11 ppm +/- 2.65, Rubidium = 3.67 ppm +/- 1.51, Zinc = 13.13 ppm +/- 5.06, Copper = 23.83 ppm +/- 10.29, and Iron = 417.28 ppm +/- 35.16
pXRF background 283: Zirconium = 0.167% +/- 0.012, Iron = 0.288% +/- 0.056, Niobium = 0.081% +/- 0.020, Aluminum = 0.988% +/- 0.272, and Silicon = 98.441% +/- 1.297

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Three vertical strips, bird, and abstract pattern in normal and DStretch (filter YXX) in Panel 3.

pXRF analysis 254 of thick, vertical stripe: Barium = 460.34 ppm +/- 39.39, Antimony = 62.14 ppm +/- 10.56, Cadmium = 18.19 ppm +/- 7.74, Silver = 12.84 ppm +/- 5.43, Zirconium = 43.26 ppm +/- 6.87, Strontium = 11.43 ppm +/- 2.12, Rubidium = 3.08 ppm +/- 1.42, Copper = 16.77 ppm +/- 9.62, and Iron = 1362.74 ppm +/- 54.62

pXRF analysis 248 of thick, vertical stripe: Zirconium = 0.032% +/- 0.010, Iron = 1.523% +/- 0.141, Aluminum = 3.154% +/- 0.428, and Silicon = 93.014% +/- 1.877

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C shaped pictograph - possibly a corral in normal photography and DStretch (filter YXX) in Panel 3. 

pXRF analysis 252: Barium = 479.29 ppm +/- 43.45, Antimony = 79.85 ppm +/- 11.77, Tin = 40.94 ppm +/- 9.23, Cadmium = 26.87 ppm +/- 8.62, Silver = 15.58 ppm +/- 6.02, Zirconium = 46.14 ppm +/- 7.61, Strontium = 13.17 ppm +/- 2.39, Rubidium = 2.88 ppm +/- 1.56, Zinc = 12.63 ppm +/- 5.41, and Iron = 1095.01 ppm +/- 65.61

pXRF analysis 247: Zirconium = 0.253% +/- 0.062, Iron = 3.935% +/- 0.701, and Silicon = 94.427% +/- 5.236

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"New" C-14 dates: AD 230 - 530, AD 260 - 540, and AD 1425 - 1635

Deer Run Shelter, 23MO1380

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