Michael Fuller

Red pictograph on the on the left side of Panel 6 (ceiling) has been described (Diaz-Granados and Duncan xxxx:171) as a resembling a bow-tie variety of bannerstone surrounded by a series of red dots. The bow-tie pictograph measures 9 cm. in length. Natural light and DStretch filter YRE images.


pXRF reading 281: Barium = 463.00 ppm +/- 40.33, Antimony = 62.94 ppm +/- 10.81, Cadmium = 17.33 ppm +/- 7.91, Silver = 19.08 ppm +/- 5.65, Zirconium = 102.30 +/- 7.74, Strontium = 19.54 ppm +/- 2.38, Copper = 23.35 ppm +/- 10.19, and Iron = 678.09 ppm +- 41.66.

pXRF reading 284: Zirconium = 0.056% +/- 0.008, Iron = 0.554% +/- 0.066, Niobium = 0.054% +/- 0.018, Aluminum = 1.417% +/- 0.267, and Silica = 97.898% +/- 1.188. 


pXRF background 282: Barium = 398.26 ppm +/- 40.51, Antimony = 51.79 ppm +/- 10.86, Tin = 28.88 ppm +/- 8.58, Cadmium = 20.43 ppm +/- 8.04, Silver = 12.87 ppm +/- 5.63, Zirconium = 331.84 ppm +/- 9.83, Strontium = 30.11 ppm +/- 2.65, Rubidium = 3.67 ppm +/- 1.51, Zinc = 13.13 ppm +/- 5.06, 

pXRF background 283: Zirconium = 0.167% +/- 0.012, Iron = 0.288% +/- 0.056, Niobium = 0.081% +/- 0.020, Aluminum = 0.988% +/- 0.272, and Silica = 98.441% +/- 1.297

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Deer Run Shelter Site

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Two hands painted in panel 6. dStretch filter LRE.

pXRF number 275: Barium = 458.62 ppm +/- 40.13, Antimony = 63.86 ppm +/- 10.77, Tin = 39.21 ppm +/- 8.53, Cadmium = 20.96 ppm +/- 7.91, Silver = 13.31 ppm +/- 5.54, Zirconium = 111.61 ppm +/- 7.70, Strontium = 6.63 ppm +/- 2.04, Zinc = 10.22 ppm +/- 4.82, Copper = 20.19 ppm +/- 10.03, and Iron = 295.04 ppm, +/- 30.86.

pXRF number 290: Zirconium = 0.34% +/- 0.014, Iron = 0.364% +/- 0.103, Aluminum = 0.473% +/- 0.181, Silica = 99.068% +/- 1.218.


pXRF Background 265: Barium = 613.70 ppm +/- 48.38, Antimony = 89.17 ppm +/- 12.99, Tin = 55.92 ppm +/- 10.27, Cadmium = 42.80 ppm +/- 9.64, Silver = 26.58 ppm +/- 6.78, Zirconium = 131.72 ppm +/- 9.35, Strontium = 11.60 ppm +/- 2.58, Mercury = 5.91 ppm +/- 3.90,  Zinc = 17.04 ppm +/- 6.29, and Iron = 280.64 ppm +/- 36.03. 

pXRF Background 264: Zirconium = 0.047% +/- 0.007, Iron = 0.292% +/- 0.048, Niobium = 0.056 +/- 0.016, Aluminum = 2.796% +/- 0.279, and Silica = 96.784% +/- 1.252.

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Several handprint pictographs at the Deer Run Shelter site are very interesting.  The digital photographs were processed through Stretch filter LRE to give clarity. Panel 8 has a spiral pattern on the palm of the hand that remind me of pictographs inNatural Bridges National Monument in Utah. 

pXRF Reading no. 292: Barium = 471.45 ppm +/- 40.34, Antimony = 62.73 ppm +/- 10.81, Tin = 35.38 ppm +/- 8.52, Cadmium = 26.03 ppm +/- 8.00, Silver = 11.94 ppm +/- 5.54, Zirconium = 46.31 ppm +/- 7.05 ppm, Strontium = 8.13 ppm +/- 2.09, Zinc = 8.31 ppm +/- 4.74, and Iron = 552.93 ppm +/- 38.49.

pXRFReading no. 297: Zirconium = 0.031% +/- 0.006, Iron = 0.426% +/- 0.054, Niobium = 0.044% +/- 0.015, Aluminum = 2.303% +/- 0.303, and Silica = 97.164% +/- 1.156.


pXRF Background Reading no. 294: Barium = 453.06 ppm +/- 41.29, Antimony = 69.80 ppm +/- 11.15, Tin = 31.03 ppm +/- 8.72, Cadmium = 30.80 ppm +/- 8.26, Silver = 23.16 ppm +/- 5.85, Zirconium = 58.54 ppm +/- 7.38, Strontium = 12.20 ppm +/- 2.25, Iron = 290.42 ppm +/- 31.75, 

pXRF Background Reading no. 295: Zirconium = 0.047% +/- 0.008, Iron = 0.253 % +/- 0.053, Niobium = 0.047% +/- 0.019, Aluminum = 1.740% +/- 0.327, and Silica = 97.888% +/- 1.336.

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Two hour-glass symbols in Panel 6. Dstretch filter CRGB. This is more of a crimson red pigment.


pXRF reading 269: Barium = 590.05 ppm +/- 43.66, Antimony = 75.38 ppm +/- 11.63, Tin = 53.84 ppm +/- 9.27, Cadmium = 30.74 ppm +/- 8.58, Silver = 21.50 ppm +/- 6.06, Zirconium 46.08 ppm +/- 7.55, Strontium = 19.80 ppm +/- 2.54, Zinc = 15.51 ppm +/- 5.50, and Iron = 885.10 ppm +/- 49.49.

pXRF reading 260: Zirconium = 0.020 +/- 0.006, Iron = 0.865% +/- 0.073, Aluminum = 3.680% +/- 0.317, and Silica = 95.405% +/- 1.186.


pXRF Background 265: Barium = 613.70 ppm +/- 48.38, Antimony = 89.17 ppm +/- 12.99, Tin = 55.92 ppm +/- 10.27, Cadmium = 42.80 ppm +/- 9.64, Silver = 26.58 ppm +/- 6.78, Zirconium = 131.72 ppm +/- 9.35, Strontium = 11.60 ppm +/- 2.58, Mercury = 5.91 ppm +/- 3.90,  Zinc = 17.04 ppm +/- 6.29, and Iron = 280.64 ppm +/- 36.03. 
pXRF Background 264: Zirconium = 0.047% +/- 0.007, Iron = 0.292% +/- 0.048, Niobium = 0.056 +/- 0.016, Aluminum = 2.796% +/- 0.279, and Silica = 96.784% +/- 1.252.

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Red pictograph in panel 3 of an animal that on first glance resembles a dog, but the faint horns on the top of the head resemble bison. Who knows? Natural and DStretch (filter YRE) images. The pictograph measures 16 cm. in length. 


pXRF reading 233: Barium = 470.41 ppm +/- 41.63, Antimony = 70.31 ppm +/- 11.21, Tin = 39.37 ppm +/- 8.84, Cadmium = 24.43 ppm +/- 8.24, Silver = 21.02 ppm +/- 5.86, Zirconium = 37.70 ppm +/- 7.34, Strontium = 59.70 ppm +/- 3.30, Rubidium = 2.32 ppm +/- 1.49, Lead = 47.77 ppm +/- 6.72, Arsenic = 9.18 ppm +/- 5.05, Zinc = 18.79 ppm +/- 5.55, Copper = 48.10 ppm +/- 11.63, and Iron = 1018.62 ppm +/- 50.85.
pXRF reading 244: Zirconium = 0.051% +/- 0.009, Lead = 0.076% +/- 0.010, Iron = 1.425% +/- 0.117, Niobium 0.046% +/- 0.022, Aluminum = 5.324% +/- 0.383, and Silica = 93.009% +/- 1.421.  


pXRF background reading 238: Barium = 422.49 ppm +/- 31.12, Antiomy = 55.22 ppm +/- 11.02, Tin = 35.12 ppm +/- 8.74, Cadmium = 19.95 ppm +/- 8.14, Silver = 14.53 ppm +/- 5.72, Zirconium = 91.16 ppm +/- 7.80, Strontium = 36.66 ppm +/- 2.83, Lead = 16.75 ppm +/- 5.49, Zinc = 22.94 ppm +/- 5.82, Copper = 122.59 +/- 14.02, and Iron = 290.62 ppm +/- 31.74.
pXRF background reading 239: Zirconium = 0.078% +/- 0.016, Iron = 0.460% +/- 0.101, Aluminum = 19.892% +/- 0.667, Silica = 79.523% +/- 2.558. 

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The Deer Run Shelter Site is located on private property in an isolated location in Southeast Missouri; it is not open to the public. The site was first described by Carol Diaz-Granados (1993:538 - 433, illustrations 11.1 to 11.7) in her dissertation. It is discussed in the Petroglyphs and Pictographs of Missouri (Diaz-Granados and Duncan 2000:55, 106, 110, 111, 128, 164, 171, 181, 183, 191, 223, 242, 246, 250,  Figure 55.4, F-7).


I spent a day at the Deer Run Shelter pictograph site on 26 October 2022. The purpose of my visit, with landowner permission, was to record over 60 readings with a Niton pXRF instrument. Readings were taken on the pictographs as well as nearby sections of unpainted bedrock.

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Hunter in Panel 3, dStretch filter YRE.

pXRF reading 232: Barium = 649.37 ppm +/- 48.37, Antimony 95.04 ppm +/- 12.97, Tin = 68.97 ppm +/- 12.97, Tin = 68.97 ppm +/- 10.36, Cadmium = 37.13 ppm +/- 9.52, Silver = 30.33 ppm +/- 10.36, Zirconium = 61.36 ppm +/- 8.83, Strontium = 120.18 ppm +/- 4.83, Lead = 37.87 ppm +/- 7.29, Zinc = 13.63 ppm +/- 6.04, Copper = 39.55 ppm +/- 13.57, and Iron = 907.85 ppm +/- 55.03.

pXRF reading 245: Zirconium = 0.120% +/- 0.034, Lead = 0.088% +/- 0.029, Iron = 1.367% +/- 0.276, Aluminum = 11.693% +/- 0.890, and Silica = 86.575% +/- 4.234.


pXRF background reading 238: Barium = 422.49 ppm +/- 31.12, Antiomy = 55.22 ppm +/- 11.02, Tin = 35.12 ppm +/- 8.74, Cadmium = 19.95 ppm +/- 8.14, Silver = 14.53 ppm +/- 5.72, Zirconium = 91.16 ppm +/- 7.80, Strontium = 36.66 ppm +/- 2.83, Lead = 16.75 ppm +/- 5.49, Zinc = 22.94 ppm +/- 5.82, Copper = 122.59 +/- 14.02, and Iron = 290.62 ppm +/- 31.74.

pXRF background reading 239: Zirconium = 0.078% +/- 0.016, Iron = 0.460% +/- 0.101, Aluminum = 19.892% +/- 0.667, Silica = 79.523% +/- 2.558. 

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Red pictograph on the right side of panel 6 that resembles an atlatl with a rectangular bannerstone. The pictograph measures 32 cm in length. DStretch filter YRE.


pXRF reading 271: Barium = 507.32 ppm +/- 43.33, Antimony = 83.73 ppm +/- 11.72, Tin = 45.35 ppm +/- 9.22, Cadmium = 21.19 ppm +/- 8.50, Silver = 23.77 ppm +/- 6.11, Zirconium = 192.80 ppm +/- 9.12, Strontium = 23.07 ppm +/- 2.63, Rubidium = 2.88 ppm +/- 1.55, Zinc = 8.99 ppm +/- 5.18, Copper = 16.73 ppm +/- 10.99, and Iron = 358.69 ppm +/- 35.41.

pXRF reading 258: Zirconium = 0.099% +/- 0.012, Iron = 0.474% +/- 0.078, Niobium = 0.058% +/- 0.023, Aluminum = 2.437% +/- 0.404, and Silica = 96.887% +/- 1.741.


pXRF Background 265: Barium = 613.70 ppm +/- 48.38, Antimony = 89.17 ppm +/- 12.99, Tin = 55.92 ppm +/- 10.27, Cadmium = 42.80 ppm +/- 9.64, Silver = 26.58 ppm +/- 6.78, Zirconium = 131.72 ppm +/- 9.35, Strontium = 11.60 ppm +/- 2.58, Mercury = 5.91 ppm +/- 3.90,  Zinc = 17.04 ppm +/- 6.29, and Iron = 280.64 ppm +/- 36.03. 
pXRF Background 264: Zirconium = 0.047% +/- 0.007, Iron = 0.292% +/- 0.048, Niobium = 0.056 +/- 0.016, Aluminum = 2.796% +/- 0.279, and Silica = 96.784% +/- 1.252.

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The largest pictograph at the Deer Run Shelter site is a red abstract pattern that is situated in panel 6. Eric Fuller proposes that this is an abstract representation of a pileated woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus). Natural and DStretch (filter YRE) photographic images.


pXRF reading 274: Barium 981.00 ppm +/- 72.78, Antimony 166.69 ppm +/- 19.71, Tin = 121.93 ppm +/- 15.78, Cadmium = 71.12 ppm +/- 14.43, Silver = 49.39 ppm +/- 10.31, Zirconium = 90.96 ppm +/- 12.91, Strontium = 18.63 ppm +/- 4.05, Mercury = 10.49 ppm +/- 6.98, Zinc = 17.01 ppm +/- 9.95, and Iron = 835.20 ppm +/- 77.35. 
pXRF reading 291: Zirconium = 0.043% +/- 0.015, Iron = 0.475 +/- 0.113, Sulphur = 0.003% +/- 0.001, Phosphorus = 0.004% +/- 0.001, and Silica = 98.353% +/- 3.210. A rare example of a trace of sulphur in the pigment suggesting either pyrite or gypsum. 


pXRF Background 265: Barium = 613.70 ppm +/- 48.38, Antimony = 89.17 ppm +/- 12.99, Tin = 55.92 ppm +/- 10.27, Cadmium = 42.80 ppm +/- 9.64, Silver = 26.58 ppm +/- 6.78, Zirconium = 131.72 ppm +/- 9.35, Strontium = 11.60 ppm +/- 2.58, Mercury = 5.91 ppm +/- 3.90,  Zinc = 17.04 ppm +/- 6.29, and Iron = 280.64 ppm +/- 36.03. 
pXRF Background 264: Zirconium = 0.047% +/- 0.007, Iron = 0.292% +/- 0.048, Niobium = 0.056 +/- 0.016, Aluminum = 2.796% +/- 0.279, and Silica = 96.784% +/- 1.252.


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Faint red pictograph of a turtle. It is always interesting to wonder if the pictograph was related to the turtle constellation of the Lakota nation as described by Ronald Goodman 2017:60-1). Natural and DStretch (filter YRE) photography. This pictograph was not analyzed with pXRF because it is very faint and is situated on the ceiling where analysis if more problematic.

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