Michael Fuller

Fine grain petroglyph lines on the vertical face of the boulder. The decorated space measures approximately 13 x 15 cm.

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Dr, Michael Fuller writes up his notes directly beneath the circle-and-dot pictograph in Indian Cave. Photograph by Richard Orr.

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Indian Cave 2 (23CR1651)

Fine grain petroglyphs on a boulder beneath the circle-and-dot pictograph on the ceiling of the cave

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Red circle-and-dot pictograph painted on the ceiling of Indian Cave 2 (23CR1651). The dot measures 7 cm in diameter. The maximum diameter of the circle is 42 cm and the thickness of the circle averages 7 cm. pXRF chemical analysis indicates a pre-modern, Iron pigment. 

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Dr. Michael Fuller taking a pXRF reading to determine the chemical composition of the red pigment in the center of the circle-and-dot pictograph at Indian Cave 2. Photograph by Richard Orr.









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Dr. Michael Fuller on 7 September 2023 approximately 50 meters from the site situated in the brush. Richard Orr was checking other portions of exposed bedrock for other rock art.

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Red pigment circle-and-dot pictograph on the ceiling of Indian Cave 2 (23CR1651) immediately above the 1 meter photographic scale. The fine grain petroglyph is situated on the boulder to the right of the photographic scale. The circle-and-dot pictograph is 3.6 meter back from the drip line of the shelter. This motif is dated to the Mississippian Period from AD 950 to 1450. Shallow pits on the floor are the result of looters.

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Indian Cave 2 was recognized in the 1980s as a pictograph/petroglyph site by Mr. Richard Orr, a citizen archaeologist and member if the Missouri Speleological Society. The archaeological site was registered by Dr. Michael Fuller. The cave was registered with the MSS and mapped by M. Ellenberg and J. State in 1966. Total length of the cave is approximately 30 meters and it is a belly crawl after the initial entrance room. 

Dstretch image (filter crgb) of the circle-and-dot pictograph at Indian Cave 2.

pXRF red circle 162 and 165: Zinc = 0.003% +/0.001, Iron = 0.333% +/- 0.015, Aluminum = 99.662% +/- 0.007. Barium = 633.51 ppm +/- 48.52, Antimony = 53.08 ppm +/- 12.06, Tin = 28.22 ppm +/- 10.46, Strontium = 68.57 pp +/- 4.04, Rubidium = 8.65 ppm +/- 1.96, Zinc = 48.24 ppm +/- 8.27, Nickel = 33.86 pp +/- 21.31, Iron = 4851. 74 ppm +/- 121.28, and Manganese = 189.75 ppm +/- 43.32.

Unpainted rock pXRF 163 and 164: Iron = 0.109% +/- 0.012, Aluminum/Silica = 99.887% +/- 0.002. Barium = 698.95 ppm +/- 61.1, Antimony = 73.31 ppm +/- 15.35, Tin = 50.45 ppm +/- 13.44, Cadmium = 26.81 ppm +/- 10.95, Silver = 23.28 ppm +/- 7.64, Zirconium = 33.03 ppm +/- 10.34, Strontium = 66.18 ppm +/- 4.98, Zinc = 24.03 ppm +/- 8.71, Iron = 871.65 ppm +/- 70.29, and Manganese = 72.15 pp. +/- 45.55.


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