Michael Fuller

Burnt and calcined bone scapula of a modern deer. XRF sample 146 and 195. Elemental analysis: Silicon = 62.349% +/- 0.753, Iron = 18.299% +/- 0.506, Titanium = 1.714% +/- 0.407, Zirconium = 0.135% +/- 0.018, Manganese = 0.182% +/- 0.083, Molybdenum = 0.11% +/- 0.038,  Niobium = 0.094% +/- 0.035, Zinc = 0.092% +/- 0.026, Lead = 0.033 +/- 0.014. PPM analysis: Antimony = 43.65 +/- 11.61, Tin = 46.21 +/- 10.83, Silver = 82.15 +/- 29.34, Zirconium = 16.33 +/- 7.89, Zinc = 360.24 +/- 17.45, Iron = 916 +/- 54.28, Manganese = 481.62 +/- 55.37, Barium = 1491.04 +/- 49.62, and Strontium = 360.64 +/- 7.53.

Calcite, Viburnum, MO. Prof Stinchcomb specimen, XRF 173. PPM analysis: Antimony 85.05 +/- 12.08, Tin = 81.9 +/- 11.34, Cadmium = 27.22 +/- 8.24, Lead = 7.51 +/- 4.34, Silver = 181.89 +/- 13.48, Lead = 190.55 +/- 11.85, Selenium = 5.49 +/- 3.07, Gold = 27.39 +/- 8.91, Zinc = 57.37 +/- 8.64, Copper = 47.2 +/- 15.51, Nickel = 85.08 +/- 27.1,  Cobalt = 48.07 +/- 19.94, Iron = 1222.3 +/- 60.92, Manganese = 491.32 +/- 55.52, Chromium = 156 +/- 88.38, Barium = 906.27 +/- 46.65, Strontium = 21.35 +/- 2.8, Rubidium = 4.03 +/- 1.83, Arsenic = 60.57 +/- 10.57.

Hematite from the Rupple Mine in Stanton, MO (Franklin County). XRF  168 and 171. Elemental analysis: Iron = 99.655%, Lead = 0.104% +/- 0.011, Copper = 0.054% +/- 0.018, Zinc = 0.041 +/- 0.011. PPM analysis: Antimony = 138.13 +/- 25.77, Tin = 65.78 +/- 25.04, Cadmium = 28.73 +/- 17.32, Silver = 338.58 +/- 32.02, Zirconium = 63.34 +/- 16.25, Lead = 871.97 +/- 45.69, Zinc = 40.38 +/- 23.95, Copper = 1803.52 +/- 91.43, Nickel = 578.67 +/- 122.5, Iron = 1,986,000 +/- 4115.02, Manganese = 660.9 +/- 299.69, Barium= 1102.87 +/- 102.86, Rubidium = 17.17 +/- 4.82, Arsenic = 575.3 +/- 44.92.

Calcite fragment from STLCC-MC 

XRF 148 and 194 () Antimony = 124.22 +/- 14.25, Tin = 121.1 +/- 13.44, 

Sphalerite (ZnS) from Pierson Creek, Greene County MO XRF 180 PPM analysis: Antimony - 258.36 +/- 62.07, Tin = 113.21 +/- 45.23, Cadmium = 4369.45 +/- 100.12, Lead = 82.86 +/- 18.98, Silver = 248.24 +/- 57.81, Selenium = 262.36 +/- 28.65, Gold = 309.14 +/- 53.39, Zinc = 1,358,011.5 +/- 3195.96,  Copper = 962.5 +/- 225.02, Iron = 9120.86 +/- 589.17, Mercury = 1529.32 +/- 137.37.

Galena from Sand Springs near Potosi, MO. Bruce Stinchcomb collection.  XRF analysis 160 and 178. Elemental analysis: Lead = 89.376% +/- 0.777, Silicon = 4.088% +/- 0.189, Titanium = 2.949% +/- 0.513, Vanadium = 1.665% +/- 0.335, Phosphorus = 0.388% +/- 0.065,  Iron = 0.254% +/- 0.086, Silver = 0.182% +/- 0.053, Antimony = 0.084% +/- 0.04.

Hematite axe made from Lewiston, MO in the Prof. Stinchcomb collection. XRF sample 163 and 175. Elemental Analysis: Iron = 89.774 +/- 0.378, Silicon = 6.382 +/- 0.119, Aluminum = 2.859 +/- 0.254, Manganese = 0.606 +/- 0.068, Phosphorus = 0.121 +/- 0.018, Zinc = 0.082 +/- 0.025, Sulfur = 0.044 +/- 0.009;  PPM analysis: Antimony 80.98 +/- 31.66,  Cadmium = 34 +/- 22.07, Zinc = 340.7 +/- 44.32, Nickel = 1177.2 +/- 176.73, Iron = 3,637,110.75 +/- 6627.31, Manganese = 15,894.71 +/- 707.44, Chromium = 2480.05 +/- 787.72, Titanium = 15622.8 +/- 2737, Strontium = 31.36 +/- 8.35, Rubidium 45.74 +/- 7.4, Arsenic = 207.08 +/- 26.81.

Hematite from 23SL1064,  calibrated  C-14 date of AD 1010 to 1040, Large Mound, Unit TU-16  : 229.3 grams. XRF 208: Antimony 115.23 +/- 27.5, Tin 40.72 +/- 26.25, Silver = 162.86 +/- 32.56, Zirconium 86.52 +/- 1833, Lead = 272.12 +/- 32.78, Zinc = 1943.37 +/- 80.53, Iron = 2,072,627 +/- 4522.51, Manganese = 15,704.07 +/- 583.55, Chromium = 4483.46 +/- 634.71, Titanium = 40,294.16 +/- 3110.25, Barium = 690.47 +/- 107.69, Strontium = 48.44 +/- 7.78, Rubidium 58.96 +/- 7.21, Arsenic = 197.58 +/- 30.29.

23SG100 (Richard Martens collection) XRF 140 and 141
Elemental analysis exterior: Silicon = 55.25% +/0 .90, Iron = 26.73% +/- .82, Aluminum = 14.61% +/- .45, Titanium = 1.95% +/- .52, Manganese = 0.393% +/- .139, Zinc = 0.138% +/- .043, Zirconium = 0.183% +/- 0.31, Molybdenum 0.166% +/- .070

Elemental analysis interior: Silicon = 57.80% +/- 1.53,  Iron = 24.16% +/- 1.42, Aluminum = 15.80% +/- .69, 
Manganese = 1.715% +/- /101, Titanium = 1.55% +/- .44, Zinc = 0.115% +/- .036,  Zirconium = 0.122% +/- .025, Niobium = 0.104% +/- 049

Optical Calcite (Icelandic Spar) 181. PPM analysis: Antimony = 86.13 +/- 11.72, Tin = 64.99 +/- 10.85, Cadmium = 17.27 +/- 7.86, Lead = 8.28 +/- 4.22, Silver = 181.39 +/- 13.07, Gold = 13.47 +/- 7.33, Nickel = 38.7 +/- 24.65, Iron = 252.81 +/- 33.49, Chromium = 335.44 +/- 92.3, Barium = 856.53 +/- 44.99, Strontium = 46.34 +/- 3.27, Rubidium = 3.11 +/- 1.7.

Galena from Sand Springs near Potosi, MO. Bruce Stinchcomb collection. XRF analysis 179. PPM analysis: Antimony = 611.04 +/- 47.8, Tin = 331.57 +/- 44.3, Cadmium = 380.46 +/- 35.96, Palladium = 146.46 +/- 21.33, Silver = 189.85 +/- 55.35, Lead = 650,002 +/- 2002.65, Zinc = 209.31 +/- 96.67, Cobalt = 277.95 +/- 178.37, Iron = 1132.82 +/- 438.76, Chromium = 1416.58 +/- 827.1, Titanium = 6586.01 +/- 4350.35, Arsenic = 60,494.88 +/- 1648.61.

23SG100 (Richard Martens collection) XRF 145


Elemental analysis exterior: Silicon = 63.99% +/- 1.16, Iron = 17.85% +/- .80, Aluminum = 15.11% +/- .49, Titanium = 1.98% +/- 0.42, Manganese = 0.261% +/- .092, Zinc = 0.089% +/- 0.025, Zirconium = 0.134% +/- .019, Niobium = 0.099% +/- .035

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Hematite from an archaeological site near St. Louis in the R. Martens collection. XRF sample 200 PPM analysis: Antimony 60.75 +/- 12.11, Tin = 59.08 +/- 11.53, Cadmium = 16.78 +/- 8.26, Silver = 148.73 +/- 14, Zirconium = 999.35 +/- 15.22, Lead = 17.5 +/- 7.2, Gold = 15.34 +/- 8.3, Tungsten = 64.03 +/- 31.13,  Zinc = 234.64 +/- 14.89, Copper = 171.25 +/- 19.2, Nickel = 51.13 +/- 31.5, Cobalt = 428.57 +/- 160.9, Iron = 156,836.39 +/- 616.07, Manganese = 968.96 +/- 83.5, Titanium = 17728.73 +/- 1457.81, Barium = 2656.93 +/- 56.64, Strontium = 185.23 +/- 56.64, Rubidium = 171.56 +/- 5.4, Arsenic = 13.29 +/- 6.05. 

Hematite from 23SL1064, calibrated C-14 date of AD 1010 to 1040, Large Mound, Unit TU 60, 29.. grams. XRF 209 Zirconium = 127.5 +/- 20.12, Lead = 139.34 +/- 30.39, Silver = 64.04 +/- 25.8, Nickel = 419.09 +/- 148.11, Iron = 3,115,441.5 +/- 5651.34, Manganese = 8.677.46 +/- 533.87, Titanium = 50,703.79 +/- 3314.72, Strontium = 39 +/- 7.83, Rubidium = 58.54 +/- 7.44.

Limonite (yellow ochre), Samples from STLCC - MC collection. XRF analysis 150 and 192; Elemental analysis: Iron = 98.452% +/- 0.235, Titanium = 0.378% +/- 0.066,  Zirconium = 0.35% +/- 0.026, Zinc = 0.213% +/- 0.035, Palladium = 0.047% +/- 0.017. PPM analysis: Antimony = 105.25 +/- 17.15, Tin = 102.66 +/- 16.22, Cadmium = 55.29 +/- 12.01, Silver = 185.86 +/- 19.16, Zirconium = 1299.56, +/- 22.47, Zinc = 78.7 +/- 14.1, Iron = 350,578.81 +/- 1233.03, Manganese = 273.4 +/- 105.04, Titanium = 11,520.77 +/- 1476.56, Barium = 904.79 +/- 65.7, Strontium = 18.5 +/- 3.89, Rubidium = 17.2 +/- 3.17, Arsenic= 50.63 +/- 9.31. 

Sphalerite plus Dickite on Calcite crystals from Joplin, MO. Collection of Prof. Bruce Stinchcomb XRF samples 169 and 170. Elemental analysis: Zinc = 93.971% +/- 0.897, Silicon = 3.871% +/- 0.148,  Aluminum = 1.556% +/- 0.313, Cadmium = 0.274% +/- 0.034, Iron = 0.115% +/- 0.025, Lead = 0.107% +/- 0.035, Copper = 0.104% +/- 0.028.

PPM analysis: Antimony = 585.45 +/- 42.79, Tin = 375.89 +/- 38.31, Cadmium = 1088.31 +/- 42, Palladium = 102.69 +/- 14.17, Silver = 495.7 +/- 45.92, Lead = 156.15 +/- 30.69, Selenium = 120.33 +/- 20.04, Gold = 159.96 +/- 36.18, Zinc = 1,175,682.38 +/- 2289.31, Copper = 3785.66 +/- 203.6, Iron = 15012.18 +/- 526.83, Manganese = 1019.03 +/- 276.37, Barium = 2165.8 +/- 154.5, Arsenic = 40.04 +/- 26.27, Mercury = 610.34 +/- 100.39.

Galena, STLCC - Meramec mineral collection. XRF sample 155. Elemental analysis: Lead = 99.823% +/- 0.245 and Iron = 0.164% +/- 0.04.

Barite on Hematite, Washington Count, MO. Prof. Stinchcomb collection. XRF samples 166 and 172. 

PPM analysis: Cadmium = 41.55 +/- 27.52, Zirconium = 63.85 +/- 41.73, Lead = 535.7 +/- 57.18, Zinc = 96.45 +/- 44.77, Iron = 4122.32 +/- 292.31, Manganese = 968.76 +/- 637.16, Barium = 341,439.06 +/- 916.92, Strontium = 6368.65 +/- 65.83, Arsenic = 114.3 +/- 49.87.

Galena, STLCC - Meramec mineral collection. XRF samples 154. Elemental analysis: Lead = 62.672% +/- 1.277, Iron = 14.337% +/- 0.547, Silicon = 14.215% +/- 0.46, Aluminum = 3.988% +/- 0.903, Molybdenum = 1.3327 +/- 0.275, Manganese = 1.067% +/- 0.254, Niobium = 0.934% +/- 0.233, Phosphorus = 0.471 +/- 0.124, Zinc = 0.35% +/- 0.067, Zirconium = 0.226 +/- 0.092.

Galena from 23SG100 - Commonfield Site, Richard Martens collection; XRF analysis 138 and 196. Elemental Analysis: Lead = 98.888% +/- 0.281 and Iron = 0.988% +/- 0.069. PPM analysis: Antimony = 1853.95 +/- 78.53, Tin = 1440.05 +/- 86.11, Cadmium = 1598.39 +/- 75.41, Palladium 459.42 +/- 41.86, Lead = 2,472,868.25 +/- 5363.49, Zinc = 1282.55 +/- 264.38, Iron = 49.210.62 +/- 1888.31, Manganese = 2430.07 +/- 1006.48, Barium = 1396.55 +/- 294.96, Arsenic = 181,024.66 +/- 4471.38. 


Barite - STLCC-MC collection

XRF = 153 and 190. PPM analysis: Antimony = 103.12 +/- 45.53, Silver = 113.12 +/- 68.65, Zinc = 213.67 +/- 68.65,  Iron = 3577.91 +/- 309.5, Barium = 347,995.59 +/- 1039.46, Strontium = 6450.53 +/- 74.4.

Could Mississippian pottery sherds been a paint source?


23SG100 (Richard Martens collection) XRF 142 and 143


Elemental analysis exterior: Silicon = 63.50% +/- 2.55, Aluminum = 14.58% +/- .99, Iron = 19.22% +/- 1.83, Titanium = 1.95% +/- .56,  Zinc = 0.196% +/- .051, Zirconium = 0.135% +/- .030


Elemental analysis interior: Aluminum = 13.22% +/- .41, Silicon = 68.95% +/- 1.10, Titanium = 1.66% +/- 0.59, Manganese = 0.365% +/- .136, Iron = 14.88% +/- .62, Zinc = 0.176% +/- .043, Zirconium = 0.142% +/- .024

Blue Barite, Sullivan, MO, Prof .Stinchomb collection XRF 167 and 177. PPM analysis: Antimony = 202.38 +/- 60.9, Cadmium = 98.64 +/- 42.12, Zirconium = 188.76 +/- 59, Zinc = 295.99 +/- 77.5, Copper = 330.77 +/- 148.58, Iron = 3131.78 +/- 379.74, Barium = 370,575.28 +/- 1337.69, Strontium = 5608 +/- 86.79.


Galena from 23SG100 - Commonfield Site, Richard Martens collection: XRF analysis 139 and 197. Elemental Analysis: Lead = 97.389% +/- 0.259, and Iron = 2.487 +/- 0.089. PPM analysis: Antimony = 2997.92 +/- 122.05, Cadmium = 2148.3 +/- 106.06, Palladium = 743.13 +/- 65.4, Lead = 3,447,487.5 +/- 2904.48, Barium = 1943.43 +/- 414.84, Arsenic = 290,564.56 +/- 6602.53.

Selenite Gypsum, STLCC-MC collection

XRF 149 and 193: Antimony = 77.36 +/- 10.1, Tin = 47.17 +/- 9.22, Cadmium = 22.84 +/- 6.86, Silver = 140.88 +/- 11.07, Lead = 58.5 +/- 6.78, Silver = 17.43 +/- 6.68,  Zinc = 32.42 +/- 6.16, Copper = 24.47 +/- 11.56, Nickel = 92.49 +/- 21.73, Iron = 270.17 +/- 29.63, Chromium = 213.75 +/- 74.91, Barium = 766.49 +/- 38.59, Strontium = 167.75 +/- 4.57, Arsenic = 15.33 +/- 5.76.

Amethyst from Cherry Valley Mine near Steelville, MO. Prof. Bruce Stinchcomb collection. XRF: 161 and 174, PPM analysis: Antimony = 123.218 +/- 11.43, Tin = 79.12 +/- 10.49, Cadmium = 30.53 +/- 7.62, Lead = 10.28 +/- 4.06, Silver = 237.54 +/- 12.75, Zirconium = 42.99 +/- 6.66, Silver = 12.22 +/- 6.87, Zinc = 354.01 +/- 16.08, Cobalt = 28.82 +/- 15.18, Iron = 635.32 +/- 42.57, Barium = 799.61 +/- 42.3, Strontium = 5.56 +/- 2.15, Arsenic = 7.36 +/- 3.91.


Chalk fragment from STLCC-MC comparative collection. XRF = 152 and 191; PPM analysis = Antimony = 61.67 +/- 11.91, Tin = 47.42 +/- 10.97, Cadmium = 39.74 +/- 8.4, Silver = 138.16 +/- 13.16, Zirconium = 30.67 +/- 9.12, Lead = 14.66 +/- 6.6, Selenium = 4.96 +/- 2.98, Zinc = 39.61 +/- 7.96, Nickel = 59.58 +/- 26.61, Iron = 2800.71 +/- 89.38, Manganese = 1718.99 +/- 87.89, Chromium = 29.05 +/- 91.06, Barium = 775.02 +/- 46.05, Strontium = 780.28 +/- 10.93, Rubidium = 7.98 +/- 2.14.


Hematite specimen from STLCC-MC teaching collection. XRF analysis 158 and 188. Elemental analysis: Iron = 72.483% +/- 0.59, Silicon = 20.465% +/- 0.324, Aluminum = 3.632% +/- 0.498, Sulfur = 2.072% +/- 0.067, Phosphorus = -.396% +/- 0.061, Molybdenum = 0.163% +/- 0.081, Zirconium = 0.073% +/- 0.03. PPM analysis: Antimony = 50.25 +/- 15.59, Tin = 41.73 +/- 14.64, Silver = 105.58 +/- 17.49, Zirconium = 70.13 +/- 10.45, Lead = 23.52 +/- 10.32, Gold = 26.16 +/- 11.77, Zinc = 77.61 +/- 13.39, Copper = 42.83 +/- 23.4, Nickel = 204.41 +/- 49.52, Iron = 480,175.81 +/- 1404.4, Manganese = 602.68 +/- 121.62, Chromium = 587.87 +/- 199.05, Barium = 425.59 +/- 59.27, Strontium = 83.71 +/- 5.43, Rubidium = 6.39 +/- 2.55, Arsenic = 141.05 +/- 12.12

Kaolinite Clay, STLCC- MC collection

XRF 151 and 189. PPM analysis: Antimony = 18.5 +/- 9.93, Silver = 73.72 +/- 26.33, Zirconium = 183.62 +/- 7.71, Selenium = 4.77 +/- 2.36, Iron = 810.34 +/- 4.77, Titanium = 7186.7 +/- 714.84, Barium = 156.1 +/- 36.65, Strontium = 22.73 +/- 2.46, Mercury = 6.72 +/- 3.89.

Botryoidal Goethite (iron oxyhydroxide) from Crawford County, MO. Prof. Stinchcomb collection

XRF 159 and 176. PPM analysis: Antimony = 62.74 +/- 28.75, Zirconium = 78.8 +/- 19.47, Lead = 483.97 +/- 42.64, Silver = 62.72 +/- 27.93, Zinc = 4112.7 +/- 123.04, Copper = 625.94 +/- 77.62, Nickel = 407.69 +/- 152.69, Iron = 2,306,703.5 +/- 5086.59, Manganese = 3524.15 +/- 460.02, Chromium = 18063.65 +/- 986.72, Titanium = 6051.54 +/- 2224.64, Barium = 222.31 +/- 111.89, Rubidium = 20.88 +/- 5.82, Arsenic = 371.91 +/- 41.29.

Conch shell fragment from 23SG100 - Commonfield Site from Richard Martens collection; XRF analysis: Silicon = 59.71% +/- 4.97, Magnesium = 22.81% +/- 4.43, Aluminum = 14.60% +/- 1.89, Iron = 2.14% +/- .54, Zirconium = 0.505% +/- .102



Hematite from 23SL1064, calibrated C-14 date of AD 1010 to 1040, Large Mound, Unit TU 23, Level 1, weight = 60.1 grams. XRF 210 = Zirconium 25.53 +/- 16.76, Zinc = 292.18 +/- 35.78, Nickel = 729.83 +/- 133.13, Iron = 248,888.25 +/- 4851.76, Manganese = 15655.73 +/- 583.76, Chromium = 2126.59 +/- 592.73, Titanium = 19094.41 +/- 2292.96, Strontium = 17.84 +/- Rubidium = 32.41 +/- 5.81, Arsenic = 59.09 +/- 16.36.

Prehistoric Pigments in Missouri