Michael Fuller

Flourite (CaF2) from the Sweatwater Mine, Missouri. XRF Reading 151 -- 0.389% Molybdenum = 0.389% +/- 0.061, Lead = 0.935% +/- 0.062, Cobalt = 0.372% +/- 0.183, and Iron = 98.134% +/- 0.349.

Reading 178 -- Antiomy = 318.33 ppm +/- 72.87, Tin = 232.06 ppm +/- 58.93, Cadmium = 91.59 ppm +/- 52.38, Palladium = 49 ppm +/- 28.39, Silver = 116.95 ppm +/- 40.76, Zirconium = 75.41 ppm +/- 45.6, Copper = 316.68 ppm +/- 194.86, Iron = 1145995.5 ppm +/-7875.57 ppm, Barium = 1859.9 ppm +/- 271.39, Strontium = 30.62 +/- 17.28, and Arsenic = 6335.14 ppm +/- 259.34.

[Calcium and Fluorine are not in the detection range for the handheld Niton XRF instrument.]

Fluorite Neathery collection. XRF Reading 154 -- Molybdenum = 0.893% +/- 0.268, Zinc = 0.331% +/- 0.128, Iron = 1.023% +/- 0.455, Aluminum = 12.258% +/- 5.524, Silicon = 40.733% +/- 5.963, and Magnesium = 44.318% +/- 7.459.

Reading 175 -- Zirconium = 28.09 ppm +/- 13.63, Tungsten = 110.45 ppm +/- 62.39, Zinc = 49.27 ppm +/- 16.47, Iron = 304.75 ppm +/- 70.62, Chromium = 252.85 ppm +/- 157.33, Barium = 206.32 ppm +/- 77.54, Strontium = 19.71 ppm +/- 5.06, and Arsenic = 18.6 ppm +/- 9.79.

Calcite (CaCO3) from Cave-in-the-Rocks, Illinois, XRF Reading 157 -- Zirconium 1.25% +/- 0.523, and Silica = 7.419% +/- 2.213.

Reading 172 -- Tin = 72.51 ppm +/- 40.33, Zirconium = 56.75 ppm +/- 35.62, Zinc = 194.74 ppm +/- 63.28, Iron = 467 ppm +/- 215.27, Manganese = 560.73 ppm +/- 236.96, Barium = 1597.59 +/- 206.1, Strontium = 246.3 ppm +/- 25.44, Rubidium = 15.5 ppm +/- 9.3.

Ram's Horn Selenite Gypsum (CaSO4⋅ 2H2O), XRF Reading 149 -- Molybdenum = 0.02% +/- 0.006, Zirconium = 0.017% +/- 0.003, Lead = 0.012% +/- 0.003, Zinc = 0.527% +/- 0.03, Iron = 0.078% +/- 0.019, Aluminum = 99.344% +/- 0.029.

Reading 180 -- Antimony = 121.87 ppm +/- 32.57, Tin = 93.8 ppm +/- 25.79, Cadmium = 81.67 ppm +/- 25.15, Silver = 48.57 ppm +/- 17.44, Zirconium = 66.46 ppm +/- 23.17, Zinc = 78.68 +/- 27.28, Iron = 277.44 ppm +/- 103.58, Barium = 728.5 ppm +/- 117.2, and Strontium = 473.97 +/- 21.97.

[Niton does not always detect the Sulfur in samples]

23SG100 (Richard Martens collection) XRF 140 and 141
Elemental analysis exterior: Silicon = 55.25% +/0 .90, Iron = 26.73% +/- .82, Aluminum = 14.61% +/- .45, Titanium = 1.95% +/- .52, Manganese = 0.393% +/- .139, Zinc = 0.138% +/- .043, Zirconium = 0.183% +/- 0.31, Molybdenum 0.166% +/- .070

Elemental analysis interior: Silicon = 57.80% +/- 1.53,  Iron = 24.16% +/- 1.42, Aluminum = 15.80% +/- .69, 
Manganese = 1.715% +/- /101, Titanium = 1.55% +/- .44, Zinc = 0.115% +/- .036,  Zirconium = 0.122% +/- .025, Niobium = 0.104% +/- 049

Desert Rose Gypsum (CaSO4⋅ 2H2O) XRF Reading 150 -- Zirconium = 1.346% +/- 0.57, Iron = 5.075% +/- 1.562, and Sulfur = 17.199% +/- 1.851

Reading 179 -- Antimony = 150.02 ppm +/- 41.02, Tin = 108.92 ppm  +/- 32.35, Cadmium = 89.48 ppm +/- 31.56, Silver = 51.5 ppm +/- 21.71, Zirconium = 99.52 ppm +/- 27.68,  Zinc = 52.98 ppm +/- 33.72, Iron = 911.16 ppm +/- 184.69, Barium = 854.05 ppm +/- 147.29, Strontium = 138.41 ppm +/- 147.29, and Rubidium = 9.84 ppm +/- 6.51.

Optical Calcite (Icelandic Spar) 181. PPM analysis: Antimony = 86.13 +/- 11.72, Tin = 64.99 +/- 10.85, Cadmium = 17.27 +/- 7.86, Lead = 8.28 +/- 4.22, Silver = 181.39 +/- 13.07, Gold = 13.47 +/- 7.33, Nickel = 38.7 +/- 24.65, Iron = 252.81 +/- 33.49, Chromium = 335.44 +/- 92.3, Barium = 856.53 +/- 44.99, Strontium = 46.34 +/- 3.27, Rubidium = 3.11 +/- 1.7.

Galena from Sand Springs near Potosi, MO. Bruce Stinchcomb collection. XRF analysis 179. PPM analysis: Antimony = 611.04 +/- 47.8, Tin = 331.57 +/- 44.3, Cadmium = 380.46 +/- 35.96, Palladium = 146.46 +/- 21.33, Silver = 189.85 +/- 55.35, Lead = 650,002 +/- 2002.65, Zinc = 209.31 +/- 96.67, Cobalt = 277.95 +/- 178.37, Iron = 1132.82 +/- 438.76, Chromium = 1416.58 +/- 827.1, Titanium = 6586.01 +/- 4350.35, Arsenic = 60,494.88 +/- 1648.61.

23SG100 (Richard Martens collection) XRF 145


Elemental analysis exterior: Silicon = 63.99% +/- 1.16, Iron = 17.85% +/- .80, Aluminum = 15.11% +/- .49, Titanium = 1.98% +/- 0.42, Manganese = 0.261% +/- .092, Zinc = 0.089% +/- 0.025, Zirconium = 0.134% +/- .019, Niobium = 0.099% +/- .035

Muscovite Mica (Al2K2O6Si)  from Brazil. XRF Reading 147 -- Tin = 0.24% +/- 0.017, Niobium = 0.121% +/- 0.026, Bismuth = 0.26% +/- 0.023, Zinc = 0.109% +/- 0.02, Iron = 2.912% +/- 0.189, Manganese = 0.179% +/- 0.081, Aluminum = 34.169% +/- 0.407, and Silicon = 62.009% +/- 0.994. 

Reading 182 -- Antimony 55.4 ppm +/- 16.6, Tin = 448.15 ppm +/- 18.41, Silver = 14.06 ppm +/- 8.61, Zirconium = 199.04 ppm +/- 19.37, Iron = 3940.4 +/- 148.55, Manganese = 360.26 ppm +/- 68.32, Barium = 309.68 ppm +/- 59.41, and Rubidium = 2478.05 ppm +/- 27.67.


Fluorite from China, XRF Reading 153 -- Molybdenum = 1.289% +/- 0.424, Silicon = 34.2% +/- 7.193, and Magnesium = 59.2% +/- 9.39.

Reading 176 -- Zirconium = 34.53 ppm +/- 17.23, Zinc = 37.26 ppm +/- 19.97, Titanium = 5014.29 ppm +/- 1337.59, and Strontium = 21.35 ppm +/- 6.44.

Sphalerite plus Dickite on Calcite crystals from Joplin, MO. Collection of Prof. Bruce Stinchcomb XRF samples 169 and 170. Elemental analysis: Zinc = 93.971% +/- 0.897, Silicon = 3.871% +/- 0.148,  Aluminum = 1.556% +/- 0.313, Cadmium = 0.274% +/- 0.034, Iron = 0.115% +/- 0.025, Lead = 0.107% +/- 0.035, Copper = 0.104% +/- 0.028.

PPM analysis: Antimony = 585.45 +/- 42.79, Tin = 375.89 +/- 38.31, Cadmium = 1088.31 +/- 42, Palladium = 102.69 +/- 14.17, Silver = 495.7 +/- 45.92, Lead = 156.15 +/- 30.69, Selenium = 120.33 +/- 20.04, Gold = 159.96 +/- 36.18, Zinc = 1,175,682.38 +/- 2289.31, Copper = 3785.66 +/- 203.6, Iron = 15012.18 +/- 526.83, Manganese = 1019.03 +/- 276.37, Barium = 2165.8 +/- 154.5, Arsenic = 40.04 +/- 26.27, Mercury = 610.34 +/- 100.39.

Galena, STLCC - Meramec mineral collection. XRF sample 155. Elemental analysis: Lead = 99.823% +/- 0.245 and Iron = 0.164% +/- 0.04.

Barite on Hematite, Washington Count, MO. Prof. Stinchcomb collection. XRF samples 166 and 172. 

PPM analysis: Cadmium = 41.55 +/- 27.52, Zirconium = 63.85 +/- 41.73, Lead = 535.7 +/- 57.18, Zinc = 96.45 +/- 44.77, Iron = 4122.32 +/- 292.31, Manganese = 968.76 +/- 637.16, Barium = 341,439.06 +/- 916.92, Strontium = 6368.65 +/- 65.83, Arsenic = 114.3 +/- 49.87.

Galena, STLCC - Meramec mineral collection. XRF samples 154. Elemental analysis: Lead = 62.672% +/- 1.277, Iron = 14.337% +/- 0.547, Silicon = 14.215% +/- 0.46, Aluminum = 3.988% +/- 0.903, Molybdenum = 1.3327 +/- 0.275, Manganese = 1.067% +/- 0.254, Niobium = 0.934% +/- 0.233, Phosphorus = 0.471 +/- 0.124, Zinc = 0.35% +/- 0.067, Zirconium = 0.226 +/- 0.092.

Galena from 23SG100 - Commonfield Site, Richard Martens collection; XRF analysis 138 and 196. Elemental Analysis: Lead = 98.888% +/- 0.281 and Iron = 0.988% +/- 0.069. PPM analysis: Antimony = 1853.95 +/- 78.53, Tin = 1440.05 +/- 86.11, Cadmium = 1598.39 +/- 75.41, Palladium 459.42 +/- 41.86, Lead = 2,472,868.25 +/- 5363.49, Zinc = 1282.55 +/- 264.38, Iron = 49.210.62 +/- 1888.31, Manganese = 2430.07 +/- 1006.48, Barium = 1396.55 +/- 294.96, Arsenic = 181,024.66 +/- 4471.38. 


Barite - STLCC-MC collection

XRF = 153 and 190. PPM analysis: Antimony = 103.12 +/- 45.53, Silver = 113.12 +/- 68.65, Zinc = 213.67 +/- 68.65,  Iron = 3577.91 +/- 309.5, Barium = 347,995.59 +/- 1039.46, Strontium = 6450.53 +/- 74.4.

Could Mississippian pottery sherds been a paint source?


23SG100 (Richard Martens collection) XRF 142 and 143


Elemental analysis exterior: Silicon = 63.50% +/- 2.55, Aluminum = 14.58% +/- .99, Iron = 19.22% +/- 1.83, Titanium = 1.95% +/- .56,  Zinc = 0.196% +/- .051, Zirconium = 0.135% +/- .030


Elemental analysis interior: Aluminum = 13.22% +/- .41, Silicon = 68.95% +/- 1.10, Titanium = 1.66% +/- 0.59, Manganese = 0.365% +/- .136, Iron = 14.88% +/- .62, Zinc = 0.176% +/- .043, Zirconium = 0.142% +/- .024

Blue Barite, Sullivan, MO, Prof .Stinchomb collection XRF 167 and 177. PPM analysis: Antimony = 202.38 +/- 60.9, Cadmium = 98.64 +/- 42.12, Zirconium = 188.76 +/- 59, Zinc = 295.99 +/- 77.5, Copper = 330.77 +/- 148.58, Iron = 3131.78 +/- 379.74, Barium = 370,575.28 +/- 1337.69, Strontium = 5608 +/- 86.79.


Azurite (C2H2Cu3O8) from Mexico. XRF Reading 162 -- check

Reading 167 -- Copper = 417608.81 ppm +/- 1784.49, and Titanium = 5080.79 +/- 1870.47, 

Galena from 23SG100 - Commonfield Site, Richard Martens collection: XRF analysis 139 and 197. Elemental Analysis: Lead = 97.389% +/- 0.259, and Iron = 2.487 +/- 0.089. PPM analysis: Antimony = 2997.92 +/- 122.05, Cadmium = 2148.3 +/- 106.06, Palladium = 743.13 +/- 65.4, Lead = 3,447,487.5 +/- 2904.48, Barium = 1943.43 +/- 414.84, Arsenic = 290,564.56 +/- 6602.53.

Selenite Gypsum, STLCC-MC collection

XRF 149 and 193: Antimony = 77.36 +/- 10.1, Tin = 47.17 +/- 9.22, Cadmium = 22.84 +/- 6.86, Silver = 140.88 +/- 11.07, Lead = 58.5 +/- 6.78, Silver = 17.43 +/- 6.68,  Zinc = 32.42 +/- 6.16, Copper = 24.47 +/- 11.56, Nickel = 92.49 +/- 21.73, Iron = 270.17 +/- 29.63, Chromium = 213.75 +/- 74.91, Barium = 766.49 +/- 38.59, Strontium = 167.75 +/- 4.57, Arsenic = 15.33 +/- 5.76.

Amethyst from Cherry Valley Mine near Steelville, MO. Prof. Bruce Stinchcomb collection. XRF: 161 and 174, PPM analysis: Antimony = 123.218 +/- 11.43, Tin = 79.12 +/- 10.49, Cadmium = 30.53 +/- 7.62, Lead = 10.28 +/- 4.06, Silver = 237.54 +/- 12.75, Zirconium = 42.99 +/- 6.66, Silver = 12.22 +/- 6.87, Zinc = 354.01 +/- 16.08, Cobalt = 28.82 +/- 15.18, Iron = 635.32 +/- 42.57, Barium = 799.61 +/- 42.3, Strontium = 5.56 +/- 2.15, Arsenic = 7.36 +/- 3.91.


Chalk fragment from STLCC-MC comparative collection. XRF = 152 and 191; PPM analysis = Antimony = 61.67 +/- 11.91, Tin = 47.42 +/- 10.97, Cadmium = 39.74 +/- 8.4, Silver = 138.16 +/- 13.16, Zirconium = 30.67 +/- 9.12, Lead = 14.66 +/- 6.6, Selenium = 4.96 +/- 2.98, Zinc = 39.61 +/- 7.96, Nickel = 59.58 +/- 26.61, Iron = 2800.71 +/- 89.38, Manganese = 1718.99 +/- 87.89, Chromium = 29.05 +/- 91.06, Barium = 775.02 +/- 46.05, Strontium = 780.28 +/- 10.93, Rubidium = 7.98 +/- 2.14.


Galena cube from 23CN2100 - A (MSU collection). XRF Reading 63 -- Niobium = 0.384% +/- 0.038, Zirconium = 0.06% +/- 0.024, Lead = 99.287% +/- 0.323, Zinc = 0.042% +/- 0.012,  and Iron = 0.162% +/- 0.045.

Reading 75 --

Fluorite from Southern Illinois, XRF Reading 152 --

Tin = 2.539% +/- 0.641.

Reading 177 -- Antimony = 110.3 +/- 45.74, Tin = 109.89 +/- 37.22, Silver = 63.75 ppm +/- 25.49, Zirconium = 90.27 ppm +/- 31.04, Zinc = 352.03 ppm +/- 66.61, Barium = 774.48 ppm +/- 168.08, and Strontium = 35.72 ppm +/- 11.8.

Calcite fragment from STLCC-MC 

XRF 148 and 194 () Antimony = 124.22 +/- 14.25, Tin = 121.1 +/- 13.44, 

Albite (NaAlSi3O8) from Arkansas. XRF Reading 161 -- Iron = 0.999% +/- 0.227, Aluminum = 14.859% +/- 0.634, and Silica 84.115% +/- 2.68.

Reading 168 -- Antimony = 81.27 ppm +/- 29.84, Tin = 48.56 ppm +/- 23.3, Zirconium = 79.36 ppm +/- 19.9, Iron = 375.57 ppm +/- 105.95, Manganese  = 172.09 ppm +/- 101.08, Barium = 850.22 ppm +/- 112.73, Strontium = 32.61 ppm +/- 7.69, and Rhodium = 182.12 ppm +/- 13.32.

Galena from Sand Springs near Potosi, MO. Bruce Stinchcomb collection.  XRF analysis 160 and 178. Elemental analysis: Lead = 89.376% +/- 0.777, Silicon = 4.088% +/- 0.189, Titanium = 2.949% +/- 0.513, Vanadium = 1.665% +/- 0.335, Phosphorus = 0.388% +/- 0.065,  Iron = 0.254% +/- 0.086, Silver = 0.182% +/- 0.053, Antimony = 0.084% +/- 0.04.

Calcite from Denton Mine, xxx. XRF Reading 158 -- check

Reading 171 -- Antimony = 172.65 ppm +/- 28.22, Tin = 106.66 +/- 21.94,Cadmium = 63.39 ppm +/- 20.63, Silver = 40.72 ppm +/- 14.41, Zirconium = 44.99 ppm +/- 18.25, Iron = 173.49 ppm +/- 78.31, Manganese = 230.79 +/- 97.39, Barium = 1195.38, and Strontium = 332.07 ppm +/- 15.77.

Conch shell fragment from 23SG100 - Commonfield Site from Richard Martens collection; XRF analysis: Silicon = 59.71% +/- 4.97, Magnesium = 22.81% +/- 4.43, Aluminum = 14.60% +/- 1.89, Iron = 2.14% +/- .54, Zirconium = 0.505% +/- .102



Celestine (SrSO4) from Indiana, XRF Reading 160 --  Ruthenium = 0.095% +/- 0.03, Zirconium = 26.645% +/- 1.297, Bismuth = 0.439% +/- 0.0049, Lead = 0.197% +/- 0.034, Selenium = 0.03 +/- 0.011, Gold = 0.067% +/- 0.031, Zinc = 0.045% +/- 0.021, Copper = 0.113% +/- 0.045, Nickel = 1.123% +/- 0.13, Iron = 0.469% +/- 0.125, Manganese = 0.312 +/- 0.137, Chromium = 0.572% +/- 0.214, Vanadium = 0.986% +/- 0.351, Titanium = 1.718% +/- 0.551, Aluminum = 3.182% +/- 0.348, and Silicon = 61.629% +/- 0.727.

Reading 169 -- Strontium = 228253.36 ppm +/- 678.45. 

Sphalerite (ZnS) from Pierson Creek, Greene County MO XRF 180 PPM analysis: Antimony - 258.36 +/- 62.07, Tin = 113.21 +/- 45.23, Cadmium = 4369.45 +/- 100.12, Lead = 82.86 +/- 18.98, Silver = 248.24 +/- 57.81, Selenium = 262.36 +/- 28.65, Gold = 309.14 +/- 53.39, Zinc = 1,358,011.5 +/- 3195.96,  Copper = 962.5 +/- 225.02, Iron = 9120.86 +/- 589.17, Mercury = 1529.32 +/- 137.37.

Burnt and calcined bone scapula of a modern deer. XRF sample 146 and 195. Elemental analysis: Silicon = 62.349% +/- 0.753, Iron = 18.299% +/- 0.506, Titanium = 1.714% +/- 0.407, Zirconium = 0.135% +/- 0.018, Manganese = 0.182% +/- 0.083, Molybdenum = 0.11% +/- 0.038,  Niobium = 0.094% +/- 0.035, Zinc = 0.092% +/- 0.026, Lead = 0.033 +/- 0.014. PPM analysis: Antimony = 43.65 +/- 11.61, Tin = 46.21 +/- 10.83, Silver = 82.15 +/- 29.34, Zirconium = 16.33 +/- 7.89, Zinc = 360.24 +/- 17.45, Iron = 916 +/- 54.28, Manganese = 481.62 +/- 55.37, Barium = 1491.04 +/- 49.62, and Strontium = 360.64 +/- 7.53.

Calcite, Viburnum, MO. Prof Stinchcomb specimen, XRF 173. PPM analysis: Antimony 85.05 +/- 12.08, Tin = 81.9 +/- 11.34, Cadmium = 27.22 +/- 8.24, Lead = 7.51 +/- 4.34, Silver = 181.89 +/- 13.48, Lead = 190.55 +/- 11.85, Selenium = 5.49 +/- 3.07, Gold = 27.39 +/- 8.91, Zinc = 57.37 +/- 8.64, Copper = 47.2 +/- 15.51, Nickel = 85.08 +/- 27.1,  Cobalt = 48.07 +/- 19.94, Iron = 1222.3 +/- 60.92, Manganese = 491.32 +/- 55.52, Chromium = 156 +/- 88.38, Barium = 906.27 +/- 46.65, Strontium = 21.35 +/- 2.8, Rubidium = 4.03 +/- 1.83, Arsenic = 60.57 +/- 10.57.

Mica (Al2K2O6Si) from China. XRF Reading 148 -- Molybdenum = 0.55% +/- 0.087, Niobium = 0.802% +/- 0.099, Zirconium = 0.206% +/- 0035, Lead = 0.055% +/- 0.025, Zinc = 0.408% +/- 0.075, Iron = 15.213% +/- 0.977, Aluminum = 16.543% +/- 0.828, Silicon = 52.33% +/- 1.614, and Magnesium = 13.566% +/- 2.754.

Reading 183 -- Antimony = 175.31 ppm +/- 30.31, Tin = 126.23 ppm +/- 24.03, Cadmium = 55.39 ppm +/- 21.97, Silver = 62.26 ppm +/- 16.2, Zirconium = 41.49 ppm +/- 18.46, Iron = 281.13 ppm +/- 92.73, Magnesium = 160.86 ppm +/- 99.57, Barium = 1322.32 ppm +/- 113.32, and Strontium = 122.17 ppm +/- 11.03.

Kaolinite Clay, STLCC- MC collection

XRF 151 and 189. PPM analysis: Antimony = 18.5 +/- 9.93, Silver = 73.72 +/- 26.33, Zirconium = 183.62 +/- 7.71, Selenium = 4.77 +/- 2.36, Iron = 810.34 +/- 4.77, Titanium = 7186.7 +/- 714.84, Barium = 156.1 +/- 36.65, Strontium = 22.73 +/- 2.46, Mercury = 6.72 +/- 3.89.

Prehistoric Pigments in Missouri