Michael Fuller

Dr. Karen Steelman (left) points out a surviving pictograph to Mike Chervinko who took detailed photographs of the site. Jeff, property manager and site protector, looks and listens. Dr. Steelman took a small sample of pigment for C-14 analysis. Mike Chervinko took the detailed photographs. Dr. Fuller used a handheld pXRF spectrometer to determine the chemical composition of the pigments.

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A moderate size rock shelter (23WN85) is situated along a small tributary stream of the Missouri River in Warren County, MO. The site has been badly damaged by uncontrolled excavation and spray paint vandals. It is fortunate that a few red pictographs and black pictographs managed to survive. The site is situated on private property and  is not open to visitors. 

DStretch image (filter LWE)  of the dart/spear. The modern spray paint has been turned to a pinkish hue.


pXRF analysis 57: Antimony = 72.04 ppm +/- 13.69, Tin = 58.27 ppm +/- 13. 34, Cadmium = 22.83 ppm +/- 10.7, Zirconium = 40.88 ppm +/- 9.02, Iron = 908.44 ppm +/- 65.42, Barium = 491.46 ppm +/- 52.82, and Strontium = 10.65 ppm +/- 3.17.

pXRF analysis 58: Iron = 0.146% +/- 0.011, and Aluminum = 99.852% +/- 0.003. 

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Black pictograph with dart/spear across its midsection and an atlatl (?) in hand (filter LBK) - photograph by Mike Chervinko. C-14 sample by Dr. Karen Steelman.

pXRF analysis 54 (pp): Antimony = 57.96 ppm +/- 13.57, Tin = 33.95 ppm +/- 12.2, Zirconium = 42.15 ppm +/- 8.48, Gold = 14.88 ppm +/- 8.63, Iron = 905.67 ppm +/- 60.95, Barium = 422.7 ppm +/- 48.88, and Strontium = 20.41 ppm +/- 3.28.

pXRF analysis 60 (pp): Niobium = 0.018% +/- 0.002, Iron = 0.056% +/- 0.006, and Aluminum = 99.924% +/- 0.002.

pXRF analysis 55 (background): Antimony = 55.91 ppm +/- 12.57, Tin = 24.25 ppm +/- 11.17, Zirconium = 23.74 ppm +/- 7.63, Iron = 337.78 ppm +/- 39.49, Barium = 340.22 ppm +/- 44.84, and Strontium = 23.38 ppm +/- 3.12.

pXRF analysis 59 (background): Iron = 0.049% +/- 0.007, and Aluminum = 99.95%.

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Red pictograph in outline form and Stretched version (filter YRE). 

pXRF analysis 53 (near tail of red figure): Antimony = 54.78 ppm +/- 12.72, Tin = 26.54 ppm +/- 11.32, Zirconium = 29.63 ppm +/- 7.77, Iron = 2415.99 ppm +/- 88.07, Barium = 405.67 ppm +/- 45.84, and Strontium 11.53 +/- 2.81. 

pXRF analysis 61 (near tail of red figure): Niobium = 0.015% +/- 0.002, Iron = 0.129% +/- 0.009, and Aluminum = 99.853% +/- 0.003.

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Large red figure pictograph - possibly a bison (that local residents remember) or a Spirit Being. 

pXRF analysis 42 (left half of pictograph): Antimony = 75.02 ppm +/- 14.68, Tin = 39.81 ppm +/- 13.06, Cadmium = 34.51 ppm +/- 10.82, Palladium = 8.28 ppm +/- 5.36, Zirconium = 55.94 ppm +/- 9.22, Zinc = 15.53 ppm +/- 7.81, Iron = 428.22 ppm +/- 49.5, Manganese = 106.18 ppm +/- 44.73, Barium = 473.42 ppm +/- 52.42, Strontium = 15.58 ppm +/- 3.34, and Rubidium = 3.99 ppm +/- 2.14.

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DStretch filter LRE - red pictograph on the ceiling "may" to represent at least one or maybe two birds AND a design that appears to be a hunting net. Photograph and recognition of the bird by Mike Chervinko.

pXRF analysis 41 (center of bird): Antimony = 58.77 ppm +/- 12.75, Tin = 34.38 ppm +/- 11.43, Zirconium = 33.39 ppm +/- 7.83,  Iron = 2160.12 ppm +/- 83.76, Barium = 377.29 ppm +/- 45.66, and Strontium = 14.71 ppm +/- 2.91.

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Two red pigment abstract pictographs of different shades in a small niche of the rock shelter wall. Closeup image was taken by Mike Chervinko and DStretched with filter YRE.

pXRF analysis 54 (left pictograph): Antimony = 57.96 ppm +/- 13.57, Tin = 33.95 ppm +/- 12.2, Zirconium = 42.15 ppm +/- 8.48, Silver = 14.88 ppm +/- 8.63, Iron = 905.67 ppm +/- 60.95, Barium = 422.7 ppm +/- 48.88, and Strontium = 20.41 ppm +/- 3.28. 

pXRF analysis 49 (left pictograph): Iron = 0.397% +/- 0.016, Aluminum = 99.6% +/- 0.008.

pXRF analysis 53 (right pictograph): Antimony = 54.78 ppm +/- 12.72, Tin = 26.54 ppm +/- 11.32, Zirconium = 29.63 ppm +/- 7.77, Iron = 2415.99 ppm +/- 88.07, Barium = 405.67 ppm +/- 45.84, and Strontium = 11.53 ppm +/- 2.81.

pXRF analysis 50 (right pictograph): Iron = 1.421% +/- 0.034, and Aluminum = 98.576% +/- 0.025. 

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Two red pigment pictographs on the ceiling of the shelter. Second photograph is processed with DStretch filter YWE.  Photograph by Mike Chervinko. These were too high on the ceiling for pXRF analysis.

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Natural light photograph of a representation of a dart/spear. The shaft has been overpainted by vandals. Scale is 10 cm. 

DFS site  (23WN85)

Four nested circles in red pigment on the ceiling of the rock shelter. DStretch filter YRE on right. Scale units are in centimeters.


pXRF analysis 40: Antimony = 61.61 ppm +/- 13.12, Tin = 48.64 ppm +/- 11.89, Cadmium = 15.78 ppm +/- 9.52, Zirconium = 16.62 ppm +/- 7.78, Iron = 1419.49 ppm +/- 71.24, Manganese = 67.74 ppm +/- 39.13, Barium = 451.13 ppm +/- 47.31, and Strontium = 11.47 ppm +/- 2.88.

pXRF analysis 48: Iron = 0.242% +/- 0.013, and Aluminum = 99.754 % +/- 0.005.

pXRF analysis 43 (nearby Background): Antimony = 48.79 ppm +/- 12.33, Tin = 31.43 ppm +/- 11.09, Zirconium = 32.2 ppm +/- 7.62, Iron = 222.33 ppm +/- 34.48, Barium = 410 ppm +/- 44.69, and Strontium = 17.95 ppm +/- 2.93.

pXRF analysis 45 (nearby Background): Iron = 0.036% +/- 0.006, and Aluminum = 99.963% +/- 0.001.

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