Hematite Artifact sample analysis - Missouri

3/4 grooved axe from the Boubidoux River Site in Texas County, MO (private collection). XRF Reading 61 -- Lead = 0.021% +/- 0.018, Zinc = 0.102% +/- 0.015, Cobalt = 0.499% +/- 0.085, Iron = 99.239% +/- 0.107, and Titanium = 0.059% +/- 0.018. 

Reading 73 -- Antimony = 128.39 ppm +/- 42.91, Zinc = 1209.05 ppm +/- 114.66, Iron = 3031305.5 ppm +/- 9765.63, Manganese = 2368.66 ppm +/- 135.07, Titanium = 22108.66 ppm +/- 1135.07, Rubidium = 25.02 ppm +/- 14.54, and Arsenic = 60.09 ppm +/- 38.8. 

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Shaped hematite piece from 23GR341; MSU collection. XRF Reading 69 -- Lead = 0.022 +/- 0.009, Zinc = 0.037% +/- 0.018, Iron = 91.165% +/- 0.304, Manganese = 0.335% +/- 0.046, Titanium = 0.08% +/- 0.035, Aluminum = 1.832% +/- 0.241, Sulfur = 0.978% +/- 0.026, Phosphorus = 0.187% +/- 0.023, and Silicon = 4.975% +/- 0.113. 

Reading 81 -- Lead = 117.08 ppm +/- 48.05, Zinc = 407.1 ppm +/- 69.35, Nickel = 1051.74 ppm +/- 267.62, Iron = 2973334.5 ppm +/- 9217.27, Manganese = 12863.14 ppm +/- 935.95, Titanium = 14021.67 ppm +/- 4228.07, Strontium = 30.17 ppm +/- 12.46, and Rubidium = 46.76 ppm +/- 15.02.

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Iron Pyrite (FeS2) from Sweetwater Mine, Missouri. XRF Reading 151 -- Molybdenum = 0.389% +/- 0.061, Lead = 0.935% +/- 0.062, Cobalt = 0.372% +/- 0.183, Iron = 98.134% +/- 0.349.

Reading 178 -- Antimony = 318.33 ppm +/- 72.87, Cadmium = 91.59 ppm +/- 52.38, Palladium  = 49 ppm +/- 28.39, Silver = 116.95 ppm +/- 40.76, Zirconium = 75.41 ppm +/- 45.6, Lead = 1824.44 ppm +/- 155.82, Zinc = 148.13 ppm +/- 78.77, Copper = 316.68 ppm +/- 194.86, Iron = 1145995.5 +/- 7875.57, Barium = 1859.9 ppm +/- 271.39, Strontium = 30.62 +/- 17.28, and Arsenic = 6335.14 +/- 259.34.

Hematite from the Rupple Mine in Stanton, MO (Franklin County). XRF  168 and 171. Elemental analysis: Iron = 99.655%, Lead = 0.104% +/- 0.011, Copper = 0.054% +/- 0.018, Zinc = 0.041 +/- 0.011. PPM analysis: Antimony = 138.13 ppm +/- 25.77, Tin = 65.78 pm +/- 25.04, Cadmium = 28.73 ppm +/- 17.32, Silver = 338.58 ppm +/- 32.02, Zirconium = 63.34 ppm +/- 16.25, Lead = 871.97 ppm +/- 45.69, Zinc = 40.38 ppm  +/- 23.95, Copper = 1803.52 ppm +/- 91.43, Nickel = 578.67 ppm +/- 122.5, Iron = 1986000 ppm +/- 4115.02, Manganese = 660.9 ppm +/- 299.69, Barium= 1102.87 ppm +/- 102.86, Rubidium = 17.17 ppm +/- 4.82, and Arsenic = 575.3 ppm +/- 44.92.

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23PH153, specimen no. 109 (Mulvany Collection. Weight = 230 grams. XRF reading 143 -- Iron = 99.768% +/- 0.088, and Manganese = 0.056 ppm +/- 0.016, 

Reading 138 -- Lead = 83.16 ppm +/- 50.29, Nickel = 548.23 ppm +/- 292.32, Iron = 3509608.2 ppm +/- 10582.15, Manganese = 1965.89 ppm +/- 734.07, and Titanium = 16140.23 ppm +/- 4440.24.

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Hematite from 23SL1064, calibrated C-14 date of AD 1010 to 1040, Large Mound, Unit TU 60, 29.. grams. XRF Reading 209 -- Zirconium = 127.5 ppm +/- 20.12, Lead = 139.34 ppm +/- 30.39, Silver = 64.04 ppm +/- 25.8, Nickel = 419.09 ppm +/- 148.11, Iron = 3115441.5 ppm +/- 5651.34, Manganese = 8677.46 ppm +/- 533.87, Titanium = 50703.79 ppm +/- 3314.72, Strontium = 39 ppm +/- 7.83, and Rubidium = 58.54 ppm +/- 7.44.

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Big Blue River Site, Jackson County, MO. Specimen no. 157 (Mulvany collection). Weight = 8.0 grams

XRF Reading 145 -- Molybdenum = 0.036% +/- 0.016, Zirconium = 0.011% +/- 0.005, Iron = 99.591% +/- 0.1, Manganese = 0.048% +/- 0.018, Vanadium = 0.033% +/- 0.013, and Titanium = 0.104% +/- 0019.

Reading 140 -- Zirconium = 29.64 ppm +/- 12.54, Iron = 519097 ppm 1944.62, and Strontium = 15.64 ppm +/- 4.55.

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Limonite (yellow ochre), Samples from STLCC - MC collection. XRF analysis 150 and 192; Elemental analysis -- Iron = 98.452% +/- 0.235, Titanium = 0.378% +/- 0.066,  Zirconium = 0.35% +/- 0.026, Zinc = 0.213% +/- 0.035, Palladium = 0.047% +/- 0.017. PPM analysis: Antimony = 105.25 ppm +/- 17.15, Tin = 102.66 ppm +/- 16.22, Cadmium = 55.29 ppm +/- 12.01, Silver = 185.86 ppm +/- 19.16, Zirconium = 1299.56 ppm +/- 22.47, Zinc = 78.7 ppm +/- 14.1, Iron = 350578.81 ppm +/- 1233.03, Manganese = 273.4 ppm +/- 105.04, Titanium = 11520.77 ppm +/- 1476.56, Barium = 904.79 ppm +/- 65.7, Strontium = 18.5 ppm +/- 3.89, Rubidium = 17.2 ppm +/- 3.17,  and Arsenic= 50.63 +/- 9.31. 

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Hematite from 23WB69; MSU collection. XRF Reading 67 -- Cobalt = 0.212% +/- 0.078, Iron = 99.726% +/- 0.097, Titanium = 0.043% +/- 0.015.

Reading 79 -- Iron = 3832232.2 ppm +/- 12093.88, Manganese = 1470.78 ppm +/- 819.15, Titanium = 13089.9 ppm +/- 4869.98, and Strontium = 61.94 ppm +/- 17.21. 


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Hematite plummet from Lewis County, MO in the MSU teaching collection. XRF Reading 65 -- Iron = 99.81% +/- 0.111, Manganese = 0.05% +/- 0.016, Vanadium = 0.087% +/- 0.014, 

Reading 76 -- Lead = 92.84 ppm +/- 50.81, Nickel = 474.83 ppm +/- 291.51, Iron = 3481065.2 ppm +/- 10483.13, Manganese = 1829.13 +/- 728.42, Chromium = 1782.91 ppm +/- 1180.17, Titanium = 22754.59 +/- 4547.02, and Rubidium = 49.61 ppm +/- 16.69. 

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Hematite from 23GR118; MSU collection. XRF Reading 68 -- Iron = 93.618% +/- 0.372, Manganese = 0.186% +/- 0.04, Aluminum = 1.967% +/- 0.317, Sulfur = 0.074% +/- 0.014, Phosphorus = 0.38% +/- 0.034, and Silicon = 3.546% +/- 0.123.

Reading 80 -- Zinc = 84.89 ppm +/- 46.41, Iron = 2950370 ppm +/- 9314.55, Manganese = 4259.45 ppm +/- 727.89, Titanium = 9821.96 ppm +/- 3694.82, Strontium = 25.21 ppm +/- 12.2, and Arsenic = 68.56 ppm +/- 29.3.

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Hematite specimen from STLCC-MC teaching collection. XRF analysis 158 and 188. Elemental analysis -- Iron = 72.483% +/- 0.59, Silicon = 20.465% +/- 0.324, Aluminum = 3.632% +/- 0.498, Sulfur = 2.072% +/- 0.067, Phosphorus = -.396% +/- 0.061, Molybdenum = 0.163% +/- 0.081, Zirconium = 0.073% +/- 0.03. PPM analysis -- Antimony = 50.25 ppm +/- 15.59, Tin = 41.73 ppm +/- 14.64, Silver = 105.58 ppm +/- 17.49, Zirconium = 70.13 ppm +/- 10.45, Lead = 23.52 ppm +/- 10.32, Gold = 26.16 ppm +/- 11.77, Zinc = 77.61 ppm +/- 13.39, Copper = 42.83 ppm +/- 23.4, Nickel = 204.41 ppm +/- 49.52, Iron = 480175.81 ppm +/- 1404.4, Manganese = 602.68 ppm +/- 121.62, Chromium = 587.87 ppm +/- 199.05, Barium = 425.59 ppm +/- 59.27, Strontium = 83.71 ppm +/- 5.43, Rubidium = 6.39 ppm +/- 2.55, and Arsenic = 141.05 ppm +/- 12.12

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23PH153, specimen no. 10. (Mulvany collection). Weight = 56.6 grams. 

Reading 142 -- Lead = 0.0218% +/- 0.009, Cobalt = 0.279 +/- 0.134, Iron = 82.799% +/- 0.333, Manganese = 0.249 +/- 0.041, Titanium = 0.156% +/- 0.042, Aluminum = 5.536% +/- 0.3, Sulphur = 0.257% +/- 0.0014, Phosphorus = 0.426% +/- 0.027, and Silicon = 10.185% +/- 0.141.

XRF Reading 137-- Zirconium = 53.68 ppm +/- 28.18, Lead = 96.84 ppm +/- 40.05, Zinc = 245.94 ppm +/- 53.43, Copper = 5025.7 ppm +/- 90.82, Cobalt = 5025.7 ppm +/- 1766.56, Iron = 2184671.7 ppm +/- 7357.24, Manganese = 7064.66 ppm +/- 692.24, Titanium = 16386.57 ppm +/- 4071.2, Barium = 347.47 ppm +/- 159.82, Strontium = 45.44 ppm +/- 12.06, Rubidium = 39.62 ppm +/- 12.58, and Arsenic = 52.78 ppm +/- 3.53.

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Faceted hematite from 23WB335; MSU collection. XRF Reading 72 -- Zirconium = 0.01% +/- 0.004, Iron = 99.699% +/- 0.094, Manganese = 0.037% +/- 0.016, Vanadium = 0.029% +/- 0.012, and Titanium = 0.127% +/- 0.018.

Reading 84 -- Iron = 2878450.2 ppm +/- 9179.58, Manganese = 1545.46 ppm +/- 639.41, Strontium = 43.53 ppm +/- 13.13, and Rubidium = 51.52 ppm +/- 15.21.

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Hematite from 23GR968; MSU collection. XRF Reading 71-- Lead = 0.014% +/- 0.005, Cobalt = 0.266 +/- 0.09, Iron = 99.49% +/- 0.144, Manganese = 0.135% +/- 0.022, and Titanium = 0.041% +/- 0.018.

Reading 83 -- Iron = 3345425 ppm +/- 11166.88, Manganese = 5418.02 ppm +/- 895.37, Titanium = 11691.51 ppm +/- 4835.36, Strontium = 32.17 ppm +/- 14.82, and Arsenic = 99.86 +/- 41.85.

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Atlatl weight (boat stone variety) from 23GR341; MSU collection. XRF Reading 66 -- Zirconium = 0.02% +/- 0.005, Lead = 0.037% +/- 0.006, Cobalt = 0.233% +/- 0.08, Iron = 99.389% +/- 0.099, Manganese = 0.133% +/- 0.02, Vanadium = 0.053% +/- 0.014, and Titanium = 0.079% +/- 0.018. 

Reading 78 -- Lead = 206.04 ppm +/- 57.38, Iron = 2914818.7 ppm +/- 8737.59, Manganese = 5344.08 ppm +/- 803.67, Chromium = 2065.29 +/- 5271.27 ppm +/- 1144.02, Titanium = 20677.37 ppm +/- 5271.227, Barium = 643.76 ppm +/- 197.58, Strontium = 495 ppm +/- 32.28, and Arsenic = 197.5 +/- 53.99.

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Hematite axe made from Lewiston, MO in the Prof. Stinchcomb collection. XRF Readings 163 and 175. Elemental Analysis: Iron = 89.774% +/- 0.378, Silicon = 6.382% +/- 0.119, Aluminum = 2.859% +/- 0.254, Manganese = 0.606% +/- 0.068, Phosphorus = 0.121% +/- 0.018, Zinc = 0.082% +/- 0.025, Sulfur = 0.044% +/- 0.009;  PPM analysis: Antimony 80.98 ppm +/- 31.66,  Cadmium = 34 ppm +/- 22.07, Zinc = 340.7 ppm +/- 44.32, Nickel = 1177.2 ppm +/- 176.73, Iron = 3637110.75 ppm +/- 6627.31, Manganese = 15894.71 ppm +/- 707.44, Chromium = 2480.05 ppm +/- 787.72, Titanium = 15622.8 ppm +/- 2737, Strontium = 31.36 ppm +/- 8.35, Rubidium 45.74 ppm +/- 7.4, and Arsenic = 207.08 ppm +/- 26.81.

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Hematite from 23SL1064, calibrated C-14 date of AD 1010 to 1040, Large Mound, Unit TU 23, Level 1, weight = 60.1 grams. XRF Read 210 -- Zirconium 25.53 ppm +/- 16.76, Zinc = 292.18 ppm +/- 35.78, Nickel = 729.83 ppm +/- 133.13, Iron = 248888.25 ppm +/- 4851.76, Manganese = 15655.73 ppm +/- 583.76, Chromium = 2126.59 ppm +/- 592.73, Titanium = 19094.41 ppm +/- 2292.96, Strontium = 17.84 ppm +/- Rubidium = 32.41 ppm +/- 5.81, and Arsenic = 59.09 ppm +/- 16.36.

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23PH234, specimen no. 395 (Mulvany collection). Weight = 59.9 grams. XRF Reading 146 -- Molybdenum = 0.059% +/- 0.019, Cobalt = 0.446% +/- 0.114, Iron = 52.225% +/- 0.287, Manganese = 0.248% +/- 0.043, Titanium = 0.321% +/- 0.075, Aluminum = 6.673% +/- 0.278, Sulfur = 0.032% +/- 0.01, Phosphorus = 0.23% +/- 0.024, and Silcon = 39.695 +/- 0.221.

XRF Reading 141 -- Anatomy = 83.35 ppm +/- 26.32, Strontium = 50.18 ppm +/- 20.75, Cadmium = 45.21 ppm +/- 14.21, Cobalt = 1180.44 ppm +/- 594.14, Iron = 545890 ppm +/- 2475.15, Manganese = 1220.67 ppm +/- 220.68,  Barium = 798.05 ppm +/- 99.62, Strontium = 10.52 ppm +/- 5.57, and Arsenic = 17.19 ppm +/- 11.38.

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Hematite from 23GR341; MSU collection. XRF Reading 70 -- Molybdenum = 0.032% +/- 0.015, Niobium = 0.072% +/- 0.012, Zirconium = 0.018% +/- 0.005, Zinc = 0.022% +/- 0.009, Iron = 99.593% +/- 0.093, Titanium = 0.074% +/- 0.017.

Reading 82 -- Lead = 100.02 ppm +/- 52.19, Nickel = 574.59 ppm +/- 300.11, Iron = 3555432.2 ppm +/- 10716.83, Manganese = 1284.86 ppm +/- 722.46, Titanium = 14867.45 ppm +/- 4394.55, Strontium = 29.05 ppm +/- 13.47, and Rubidium = 40.07 ppm +/- 16.34.

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Botryoidal Goethite (iron oxyhydroxide) from Crawford County, MO. Prof. Stinchcomb collection
XRF 159 and 176. PPM analysis -- Antimony = 62.74 ppm +/- 28.75, Zirconium = 78.8 ppm +/- 19.47, Lead = 483.97 ppm +/- 42.64, Silver = 62.72 ppm +/- 27.93, Zinc = 4112.7 ppm +/- 123.04, Copper = 625.94 ppm +/- 77.62, Nickel = 407.69 ppm +/- 152.69, Iron = 2306703.5 ppm +/- 5086.59, Manganese = 3524.15 ppm +/- 460.02, Chromium = 18063.65 ppm +/- 986.72, Titanium = 6051.54 ppm +/- 2224.64, Barium = 222.31 ppm +/- 111.89, Rubidium = 20.88 ppm +/- 5.82, and Arsenic = 371.91 ppm +/- 41.29.

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23PH153, specimen 110 (Mulvany collection). Weight = 26.0 grams. XRF Reading 144 -- Zirconium = 0.008% +/- 0.004, Cobalt = 0.16% +/- 0.075, Iron = 99.713% +/- 0.092, and Titanium = 0.043% +/- 0.015. 

Reading 139 -- Lead = 100.94 ppm +/- 54.94, Iron = 3421641.5 ppm +/- 11063.37, Manganese = 2901 ppm +/- 805.53, Titanium = 13968.79 ppm +/- 4698.48, and Strontium = 32.97 +/- 14.54.

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Hematite from 23SL1064,  calibrated  C-14 date of AD 1010 to 1040, Large Mound, Unit TU-16  : 229.3 grams. XRF Reading 208 -- Antimony 115.23 ppm +/- 27.5, Tin 40.72 ppm +/- 26.25, Silver = 162.86 ppm +/- 32.56, Zirconium 86.52 ppm +/- 1833, Lead = 272.12 ppm +/- 32.78, Zinc = 1943.37 ppm +/- 80.53, Iron = 2,072,627 ppm +/- 4522.51, Manganese = 15,704.07 ppm +/- 583.55, Chromium = 4483.46 ppm +/- 634.71, Titanium = 40,294.16 ppm +/- 3110.25, Barium = 690.47 ppm +/- 107.69, Strontium = 48.44 ppm +/- 7.78, Rubidium 58.96 ppm +/- 7.21, Arsenic = 197.58 ppm +/- 30.29.

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Celt from the Roubidoux River Site in  Texas County, MO (Private collection). XRF Reading 62 -- Lead 0.113% +/- 0.018, Zinc = 0.17% +/- 0.032, Copper = 1.128% +/- 0.085, Cobalt = 0.359 +/- 0.148, Iron = 76.127% +/- 0.36, Titanium = 0.206% +/- 0.056, Aluminum = 4.133% +/- 0.315, Sulfur = 0.131% +/- 0.017, Phosphorus = 0.338% +/- 0.031, and Silicon = 17.172% +/- 0.189.

Reading 74 -- Lead = 672.47 ppm +/- 78.11, Zinc = 1039.7 ppm +/- 104.65, Copper = 200.53 ppm +/- 100.88, Iron = 3233192.2 ppm +/- 9832.12, Chromium = 2132.63 +/- 1131.09, 

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Michael Fuller

Hematite plummet from Lewis County, MO. MSU teaching collection. XRF Reading 64 -- Molybdenum = 0.036% +/- 0.015, Lead = 0.03% +/- 0.005,  Cobalt = 0.177% +/- 0.074, Iron = 99.432% +/- 0.091, Manganese = 0.146% +/- 0.019, and Titanium = 0.099 +/- 0.017.

Reading 77 -- Lead = 190.01 ppm +/- 54.24, Nickel = 769.09 ppm +/- 275.9, Iron = 3186406.5 ppm +/- 9737.2, Manganese = 6992.54 ppm +/- 829.07, Titanium = 20055.71 ppm +/- 4629.14, Strontium = 44.84 ppm +/- 13.76, Rubidium = 65.14 ppm +/- 16.58, and Arsenic = 72.99 +/- 45.05.

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Hematite from an archaeological site near St. Louis in the R. Martens collection. XRF Reading 200 -- Antimony 60.75 ppm +/- 12.11, Tin = 59.08 ppm +/- 11.53, Cadmium = 16.78 ppm +/- 8.26, Silver = 148.73 ppm +/- 14, Zirconium = 999.35 ppm +/- 15.22, Lead = 17.5 ppm +/- 7.2, Gold = 15.34 ppm +/- 8.3, Tungsten = 64.03 ppm +/- 31.13,  Zinc = 234.64 ppm +/- 14.89, Copper = 171.25 ppm +/- 19.2, Nickel = 51.13 ppm +/- 31.5, Cobalt = 428.57 ppm +/- 160.9, Iron = 156836.39 ppm +/- 616.07, Manganese = 968.96 ppm +/- 83.5, Titanium = 17728.73 ppm +/- 1457.81, Barium = 2656.93 ppm +/- 56.64, Strontium = 185.23 ppm +/- 56.64, Rubidium = 171.56 pm +/- 5.4, and Arsenic = 13.29 ppm +/- 6.05. 

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