Michael Fuller

Stuesse shelter and rock art site discovered by R. Bruce McMillan in 1964.  I visited the site in 2016 and 2024. The current owner fiercely protects his property and does not want the site vandalized or looted. Original research: http://users.stlcc.edu/mfuller/Stuesse.html

Infrared image of three black pictographs in the center of the panel. Owl: pXRF 9: Barium = 723.49 ppm +/- 53.87, Antimony = 109.66 ppm +/- 14.33, Tin = 57.78 ppm +/- 11.18, Cadmium = 50.36 ppm +/- 10.86, Silver = 39.88 ppm +/- 7.57, Palladium = 8.94 ppm +/- 5.32, Zirconium = 68.56 ppm +/- 8.55, Strontium = 20.08 ppm +/- 3.15, Rubidium = 6.49 ppm +/- 2.05, and Iron = 141.73 ppm +/- 34.8

pXRF 17: none


Deer: pXRF 8: Barium = 425.5 ppm +/- 38.9, Antimony = 43.06 ppm +/- 10.2, Tin = 25.54 ppm +/- 8.05, Cadmium = 13.35 ppm +/- 7.75, Silver = 9.81 ppm +/- 5.25, Zirconium = 43.66 ppm +/- 6.13, Strontium = 18.73 ppm +/- 2.32, Rubidium = 7.96 ppm +/- 1.58, Lead = 20.91 ppm +/- 5.37, Arsenic = 9.92 ppm +/- 4.53, Zinc = 7.01 ppm +/- 4.2,  and Iron = 209.79 ppm +/- 27.94

pXRF 18: Zirconium = 6.313% +/- 1.583, Lead = 4.722 +/- 1.309, Iron = 6.889% +/- 3.323, and Niobium = 11.358% +/- 4.207


Photograph by Mike Chervinko. The deer measures 8 cm in length, the cross-in-circle measures 4 cm in diameter, and the owl measures 9 cm in length and 3 cm in width.

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Infrared image of the black pictograph interpreted as a rib cage or as an animal net. pXRF 11: Barium = 519.43 ppm +/- 42.4, Antimony = 68.84 ppm +/- 11.22, Tin = 46.4 ppm +/- 8.88, Cadmium = 32.53 ppm +/- 8.57, Silver = 17.12 ppm +/- 5.77, Palladium = 7.42 ppm +/- 4.27, Zirconium = 43.92 ppm +/- 6.6, Strontium = 16.86 ppm +/- 2.45, Rubidium = 7.49 ppm +/- 1.69, and Iron = 139.47 +/- 27.32

pXRF 15: Zirconium = 4.738% +/- 1.365, and Niobium = 9.778 +/- 3.696

Photograph by Mike Chervinko

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Stuesse shelter during April, 2024.

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Red pictograph (half circle?) to the left of the circle-and-dot. pXRF 5: Barium = 638.52 ppm +/- 44.04, Antimony = 60.46 ppm +/- 11.38, Tin = 40.19 ppm +/- 9.01, Cadmium = 21.85 ppm +/- 8.63, Silver = 9.91 ppm +/- 5.78, Zirconium = 46.57 ppm +/- 6.8, Strontium = 22.49 ppm +/- 2.65, Rubidium = 5.92 ppm +/- 1.66, and Iron = 526.03 ppm +/- 41.62

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Two round cupules and 4 sharpening grooves on a boulder at Stuesse Shelter site. Photography by Michael Fuller. 

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2016 dStretch image of red and black pictographs, labelled. Photograph by Michael Fuller

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Red pictograph possible of a panther with long tail to left and head to right. pXRF 10: Barium = 422.36 ppm +/- 40.38, Antimony = 47.01 ppm +/- 10.64, Tin = 22.87 ppm +/- 8.34, Cadmium = 23.96 ppm +/- 8.17, Silver = 10.47 ppm +/- 5.46, Zirconium = 33.43 ppm +/- 6.25, Strontium = 15.97 ppm +/- 2.33, Rubidium = 5.77 ppm +/- 1.55, and Iron = 414.71 ppm +/- 35.82

pXRF 16: Zirconium = 3.623% +/- 1.392, Iron = 6.713% +/- 3.212, Niobium = 11.886% +/- 3.969

Photograph by Mike Chervinko

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Stuesse Shelter (23FR170)

Red vertical pictograph:  pXRF 6: Barium = 528.29 ppm +/- 41.77, Antimony = 64.17 ppm +/- 10.99, Tin = 10.99 ppm +/- 36.58, Cadmium = 25.54 ppm +/- 8.35, Silver = 16.37 ppm +/- 5.66, Palladium = 6.99 ppm +/- 4.19, Zirconium = 31.09 ppm +/- 6.34, Strontium = 14.17 ppm +/- 2.34, Rubidium = 5.76 ppm +/- 1.59, Lead = 37.22 ppm +/- 6.35, and Iron = 299.19 ppm +/- 30.32


pXRF 20: Zirconium = 4.73% +/- 1.504, Lead = 6.693% +/- 1.49, Iron = 8.825% +/- 3.902, and Niobium 10.48% +/- 4.087


Red diagonal pictograph to the left of the vertical red pictograph: pXRF 7: Barium = 483.77 ppm +/- 42.47, Antimony = 51.57 ppm +/- 11.14, Tin = 31.43 ppm +/- 8.8, Cadmium = 23.74 ppm +/- 8.52, Silver = 17.76 ppm +/- 5.81, Zirconium = 47.02 ppm +/- 6.69, Strontium = 19.02 ppm +/- 2.52, Rubidium = 5.67 ppm +/- 1.61, and Iron = 245.97 ppm +/- 31.74

pXRF 19: Zirconium = 4.073% +/- 1.261, Iron = 6.603% +/- 2.832, and Niobium = 6.897% +/- 3.357

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Unpainted bedrock above tied bundle. pXRF 12:Barium = 375.07 ppm +/- 41.05, Antimony = 43.41 ppm +/- 10.85, Tin = 33.44 ppm +/- 8.63, Cadmium = 17.05 ppm +/- 8.28, Silver = 9.15 ppm +/- 5.56, Zirconium = 40.02 ppm +/- 6.46, Strontium = 11.97 ppm +/- 2.28, Rubidium = 3.53 ppm +/- 1.49, and Iron = 135.06 ppm +/- 26.6

pXRF 13: Zirconium = 3.503% +/- 1.369

pXRF 14: Zirconium = 7.505% +/- 1.398


Photograph by Mike Chervinko

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References cited:


Chapman, Carl H., Sidney Denny and R. Bruce McMillan
1964  Report on the Archaeological Resources in the Bourbeuse River Valley and the Lower Meramec Valley of the Meramec Basin Project Area, Missouri. Prepared for the University of Missouri Columbia for the Regional Director of the Midwest Region of the National Park Service in Omaha, Nebraska.

Diaz-Granados, Carol
1993 The Petroglyphs and Pictographs of Missouri: A Distributional, Stylistic, Contextual, Functional and Temporal Analysis of the State's Rock Graphics. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Washington University , St. Louis, Missouri.

Diaz-Granados, Carol and James R. Duncan 
2000 The Petroglyphs and Pictographs of Missouri. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.

Dr. Michael Fuller with Niton pXRF (yellow case) at Stuesse Shelter. Photograph by Mike Chervinko.

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19 cm. diameter circle (probably a circle-and-dot) red pictograph on far right edge of panel. pXRF 4: Barium 638.52 ppm +/- 44.04, Antimony = 60.46 ppm +/- 11.38, Tin = 40.19 ppm +/- 9.01, Cadmium = 21.85 pp +/- 8.63, Silver = 9.91 +/- 5.78, Zirconium = 46.57 ppm +/- 6.8, Strontium = 22.49 ppm +/- 2.65, Rubidium = 5.92 ppm +/- 1.66, and Iron = 526.03 ppm +/- 41.62

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