Using the handheld XRF to make elemental analysis on the leg (reading 101) and unpainted bedrock (reading 103) below the shield.

Rattlesnake Bluff (23FR95)

My first visit to Rattlesnake Bluff site was in March of 2014. My second visit was in October of 2020. 

<-- Tall Owl



                           Medium Owl



                                                                    Small Owl

Michael Fuller

dStretch image of the warrior. In front is a faint, penis-like pictograph, behind the warrior is a large owl followed by two smaller owls. The rectangular shield held by the warrior parallels the rectangular shield slung across the back of the effigy pipe from Spiro Mound that represented a conquering warrior decapitating a captive. Dye (2004:199; Figure 16b) interprets the warrior as wearing flat shieldlike body armor.

XRF analysis 106 and 108 of the Large Red Owl: Silicon = 93.252% +/- 3.381, Aluminum = 5.507 +/- 1.042, and Iron = 1.149% +/- 0.204; PPM analysis: Antimony = 33.15 +/- 8.12, Tin = 29.28 +/- 7.44, Cadmium = 19.1 +/- 5.66, Silver = 64.31 +/- 22.97, Zirconium = 28.31 +/- 5, Iron = 2132.26 +/- 53.74, Manganese = 51.53 +/- 24.85, Barium = 423.75 +/- 30.68, Strontium = 47.85 +/- 2.39, Rhobidium = 3.66 +/- 1.22. Unpainted bedrock PPM analysis: Antimony = 64.18 +/- 7.51, Tin = 36.96 , +/- 6.77, Cadmium = 22.61 +/- 5.13, Silver = 73 +/- 26.07, Zirconium = 23.1 +/- 4.4, Lead = 5.92 +/- 3.57, Zinc = 8.04 +/- 3.38, Iron = 497.87 +/- 26.4, Barium 510.67 +/- 27.98, Strontium = 17.97 +/- 1.69, and Rhobidium = 4.74 +/- 1.12 [Normal and dStretched Photograph by Mark Leach]


Using the handheld XRF to make elemental analysis on the shield (reading 102).

The Black owl under the large Black Widewinder Rattlesnake. [photoshop circled by Mark Leach - original photograph by Michael Fuller in 2014] 

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Dye, David H.

2004 Art, Ritual, and Chiefly Warfare in the Mississippian World. in Hero, Hawk, and Open Hand: American Indian Art of the Ancient Midwest and South. Edited by Richard F. Townsend and Robert V. Sharp. Yale University Press, New Haven. 

Thomas Mercer (seated) suggests possible faint petroglyphs to Alan Westfall and Mark Leach. Michael Fuller uses the handheld XRF to take elemental readings on the Sidewinder Rattlesnake. The ladder leans against the bluff at the location of the Red Warrior and Red Owl pictographs.

XRF analysis samples 104 and 105 of the of the Black Sidewinder:  Silicon = 95.754% +/- 4.714 and Aluminum = 3.362% +/- 0.586. Unpainted bedrock: Silicon = 97.701%, Aluminum = 1.9% +/- 0.325, and Iron = 0.276% +/- 0.111. [Photograph from Mark Leach]

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Red Warrior's Leg  XRF reading 98: Silicon = 93.485% +/- 2.005, Aluminum = 4.657% +/- 0.625, Iron = 1.663% +/- 0.209 Red Warrior's Shield XRF reading 99: Silicon = 94.412% +/- 2.145, Aluminum = 3.249% +/- 0.684, Iron = 2.206% +/- 0.266, and Niobium = 0.102% +/- 0.046 Unpainted bedrock XRF reading 100: Silicon = 93.275% +/- 4.982, Aluminum = 5.934% +/- 1.413, and Iron = 0.647% +/- 0.107.